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Vol. 80 January 1996 No. 1 


MACROBERTS, B.R. & M.H. MACROBERTS, Floristics of xeric sandhills in // 
Bist DORARS oes) Ure ada hy ener ie Pens gata ede OL na ans hela Nha L 1 

Morfologia de los granos de polen de la familia Bignoniaceae de la Estacion Y 
Ge piologig ChametaJalineG, v3 icss is caniachece sev okcond so iy tic ouve eda Geen 8 

HOLMES, W.C. & D.E. WIVAGG, Identification and distribution of 
Centaurium muhlenbergii (Griseb.) Piper and C. pulchellum (Sw.) Druce // 

(Gentianaceae) in Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas. ........................ 28 
BOROWSKI, M., W.C. HOLMES, & J. SINGHURST, Phyllostachys aurea 
Riv. (Gramineae: Bambuseae) MOE Maes ric uiaceet 26 ka oe ctw ces sas 30 
WIPFF, J.K., Nomenclatural combinations in Schizachyrium (Poaceae: sup 
Andropogoneae). saab Sap Rarer ESET Re aice ate oh Cay PADI VEE gs Vogue eee ENC poe Aen Ba 35 

GALAN de MERA, A. & J.A.. VICENTE O., Las comunidades con 
Corryocactus brevistylus del sur del Pert. ............6...00.00ecuececeeeeev ess 40 “ 

VOLZ, P.A. & K.A. BABUTINA, The reorganization of the academies of 
sciences of the former Soviet Union with emphasis on the Ukrainian 

PRACT Ye es Ss case Pays Sains set epee eden zee SUR eater eck Race aa ste yrs 48 
HINTON, G.S., Mammillaria luethyi (Cactaceae), a new species from Coahuila, 

DACRICHS, S05: Fie peL it ay he aah ie a eb nse Gere Bigs ug ee Leet wan gin 53. a8 
HINTON, G.S., Turbinicarpus booleanus (Cactaceae), a new species be oy 

INREVO POT, WIOKIOO. 54, cake scenes cake bas Eee se CLR Rei ay Np ee 
PROMICS FECEIV ELF sas (bcc ues Ss weary tn a ata QE es eae eR yen eo Me a ae oo 
Publication dates! VOWEL 9 soos ae eNs Bech eis Pea le eae ee voted ey ae 68 
Disposition of manuscripts, volumes 78 and 79.............:...0ccc:cccssseseeeees 69 
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Phytologia (January 1996) 80(1):1-7. 


B.R. MacRoberts & M.H. MacRoberts 
Bog Research, 740 Columbia, Shreveport, Louisiana 71104 U.S.A. 


The floristics and edaphic conditions of two east Texas xeric sandhills are 
described. This community occurs in central and northwestern Louisiana, east 
Texas, and southern Arkansas. The sandy soil is nutrient poor and porous. 
Water and air move rapidly through it causing rapid drying. In presettlement 
times, sandhills were probably fairly common in the West Gulf Coastal Plain, 
but because of fire suppression, grazing, agriculture, oil exploration, and 
agroforestry, this community has been badly damaged and greatly reduced in 

KEY WORDS: Sandhills, xeric, floristics, Sabine National Forest, Texas 


Like so many plant communities of the West Gulf Coastal Plain, there is little 
published information on xeric sandhills (synonyms: sandylands, oak-farkleberry 
sandylands, xeric sandy woodlands, bluejack oak-pine series) (see Diamond er al. 
1987; Harcombe ef al. 1993; MacRoberts & MacRoberts 1994, 1995 for previous 
literature). This community is listed as endangered by both the U.S.D.A. Forest 
Service and the Texas Organization for Endangered Species because it is potentially 
vulnerable to extirpation or severe degradation. Most sandhill communities have been 
destroyed in northwestern Louisiana (MacRoberts & MacRoberts 1995) and the 
community is imperiled in the state (Teague & Wendt 1994; Louisiana Natural 
Heritage Program 1988). 

Xeric sandhills of the West Gulf Coastal Plain appear to be similar to turkey oak 
sandhill forests in the East Gulf Coastal Plain except for the absence of several key 
species such as turkey oak (Quercus laevis Walt.) and wiregrass (Aristida stricta 
Michx.) and the presence of several western elements not found in the east (Stout & 
Manion 1993). 

2 PHYTOLOGIA January 1996 volume 80(1): 1-7 

Sandhills occur mainly in Tertiary marine deposits on ndge tops and upper slopes, 
and on Pleistocene deposits on terraces near streams. The deep sandy soils are of low 
fertility and, because of their porous nature, water and air move rapidly through them 
causing rapid drying. Overstory, midstory, and herbaceous vegetation is often sparse, 
allowing sun to reach the ground, and in some areas, there are no trees. Reflected 
glare from the sand is often intense. Trees, typically a combination of overstory pines 
and midstory oaks, are often stunted. Lichens and mosses are usually plentiful on the 
bare soils, and the soils, where undisturbed, are often cryptogamic. 

In order to lear more about this community, we made a study of the vascular flora 
of two xeric sandhills in San Augustine County on the Sabine National Forest. We 
had previously studied xeric sandhills in Caddo and Natchitoches parishes, Louisiana 
(MacRoberts & MacRoberts 1994, 1995) and in this paper we will have occasion to 
compare the two Texas sites to those. 


We visited the two sandhills --- San Augustine and FM 1279 ---every two to three 
weeks between the autumn of 1994 and the autumn of 1995. The two sites are located 
about 8 km north of San Augustine near the northern border of San Augustine 
County. Both are on the Sabine National Forest. They are only about 200 meters 
apart but are on separate drainages. 

Both study areas are partly open (10% - 50% cover); dominant trees are Quercus 
incana Bartr., Q. stellata Wang., Pinus palustris P. Mill., and P. echinaia P. Mill. 
Trees are often stunted and openings occur among wooded areas. San Augustine 
sandhill covers about 4 ha and FM 1279 is about 1 ha. Although the terrain is hilly 
and thus topographically variable, both sites are about 200 meters above sea level. 
They occur on a narrow stnip of the Carrizo formation, which becomes more extensive 
to the northwest (Barnes 1967). 

The study sites were selected because they appeared to be of high natural quality. 
Previous work in the area consists of a brief survey designed to locate high quality 
examples of communities occurring on the National Forests and Grasslands in Texas 
(Orzell 1990). 

We collected and recorded all vascular plants found. We follow Kartesz (1994) in 
most instances of botanical nomenclature. Voucher specimens of many of the species 
collected are distributed among ASTC, BRCH, and VDB. 

Soil samples were taken from the upper 15 cm of each sandhill and were analyzed 
by A & L Laboratories, Memphis, Tennessee. 

While the specific fire history of these areas is not known, both sites have been 
regularly burned by the U.S. Forest Service. Half of San Augustine sandhill was 
prescription burned on June 14, 1995. 

MacRoberts & MacRoberts: Floristics of East Texas sandhills 3 

Annual precipitation averages about 100 cm and is fairly evenly distnbuted 

throughout the year. Humidity is typically high. In summer, temperatures rise to 35° 
C, which, when combined with short droughts, translates into very hot and dry 
conditions. Especially under these conditions, the exposed sands become very dry, 
and reflected light is intense. 


The vascular plants found at San Augustine sandhill [S] and FM 1279 sandhill [F] 
are listed in Table 1. If the species occurs at both sites, no site location is given. 

We list the soil characteristics of the Texas sandhills in Table 2 

The soil on which this community occurs is acidic loamy fine sand of low fertility 
and rapid permeability and belongs to the same soil series described previously for 
Natchitoches and Caddo Parish sandhills (MacRoberts & MacRoberts 1994, 1995). 
The soils are often cryptogamous, with a brittle lichenous crust. 


We recorded a total of 117 taxa, representing 96 genera and 46 families, for the 
two sites. San Augustine sandhill had 108 species, and FM 1279 had 102. 
Sorensen’s Index of Similarity (IS) between the two sandhills was 88.6, meaning that 
they are the same community. Seven of the species (Cyperus grayioides, Eriogonum 
longifolium, Paronychia drummondii, Polygonella polygama, Pediomelum 
hypogaeum, Selaginella arenicola subsp. riddellii, and Tetragonotheca ludoviciana) are 
on the Texas National Forests and Grasslands rare species list. Asteraceae, Fabaceae, 
and Poaceae are dominant families, accounting for about 36% of species. 

In 1993 and 1994, we studied a small xeric sandhill in Natchitoches Parish, 
Louisiana (MacRoberts & MacRoberts 1994) for which we recorded 61 taxa. Of 
these, 54 (89%) occur in the San Augustine and FM 1279 sandhills. We did not 
compute an IS between this site and those in Texas since species numbers and size are 
not comparable, but clearly the three sites belong to the same community. 

In 1994 and 1995, we studied three sandhills in Caddo Parish, Louisiana 
(MacRoberts & MacRoberts 1995). Since the North Louisiana sites are comparable in 
size and species numbers to the Texas sites, we calculated an IS between them: it is 
66, indicating that, although there are some major differences, the sandhills in Caddo 
Parish and East Texas can be considered the same community. 

4 PHYTOLOGIA January 1996 volume 80(1): 1-7 

Table 1. Vascular plants at two xeric sandhills in San Augustine County. 

ACANTHACEAE -- Ruellia humilis Nutt. [S]. 

AGAVACEAE -- Yucca louisianensis Trel. [F]. 

AMARANTHACEAE -- Froelichia floridana (Nutt.) Mog. 

ANACARDIACEAE -- Rhus aromatica Ait., R. copallina L., Toxicodendron radicans 
(EOS Ktze: 

ANNONACEAE -- Asimina parviflora (Michx.) Duval. 

APIACEAE -- Spermolepis echinata (DC.) Heller [S]. 

AQUIFOLIACEAE -- Ilex vomitoria Ait. 

ARISTOLOCHIACEAE -- Aristolochia reticulata Jacq. 

ASCLEPIADACEAE -- Asclepias tuberosa L., Matelea cynanchoides (Engelm.) 

ASTERACEAE -- Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. [F], Croptilon divaricatum (Nutt.) Raf., 
Gnaphalium obtusifolium L., G. purpureum L., Helianthus debilis Nutt. subsp. 
cucumerfolius (Torrey & A. Gray) Heiser [S], Heterotheca pilosa (Nutt.) 
Shinners, Hieracium gronovii L., Hymenopappus artemisiaefolius DC., Liatris 
elegans (Walt.) Michx., Krigia virginica (L.) Willd., Pityopsis graminifolia 
(Michx.) Nutt., Solidago nitida Torrey & A. Gray, S. odora Ait. [S], 
Tetragonotheca ludoviciana (Torrey & A. Gray) A. Gray [F], Thelesperma 
filifolium (Hook.) A. Gray [S], Vernonia sp. [F], V. texana (A. Gray) Small. 

BORAGINACEAE -- Lithospermum caroliniense (J.F. Gmel.) MacM. 

CACTACEAE -- Opuntia humifusa (Raf.) Raf. 

CAMPANULACEAE -- Triodanis perfoliata (L.) Nieuwl. [S]. 

CAPPARIDACEAE -- Polanisia erosa (Nutt.) [ltis [F]. 

CARYOPHYLLACEAE -- Paronychia drummondii Torrey & A. Gray. 

CISTACEAE -- Helianthemum georgianum Chapm., Lechea mucronata Raf. 

CLUSIACEAE -- Hypericum gentianoides (L.) B.S.P., H. hypericoides (L.) Crantz. 

COMMELINACEAE -- Commelina erecta L., Tradescantia reverchonii Bush. 

CONVOLVULACEAE -- Ipomoea pandurata (L.) Mey., Stylisma pickeringii (Torrey 
ex Curtis) A. Gray. 

CUPRESSACEAE -- Juniperus virginiana L. [S}. 

CYPERACEAE -- Bulbostylis ciliatifolia (Ell.) Fern., Cyperus grayioides 
Mohlenbrock, C. retrofractus (L.) Torr., C. retroflexus Buckl., Rhynchospora 
grayi Kunth, Scleria triglomerata Michx. 

DENNSTAEDTIACEAE -- Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn. 

ERICACEAE -- Monotropa uniflora L., Vaccinium arboreum Marsh., V. stamineum 


EUPHORBIACEAE -- Chamaesyce cordifolia (Ell.) Small, Cnidosculus texanus 
(Muell.-Arg.) Small, Crotonopsis linearis Michx., Stillingia sylvatica L. [S], 
Tragia urens L., T. urticifolia Michx. 

FABACEAE -- Baptisia nuttalliana Small, Centrosema virginianum (L.) Benth., Dalea 
villosa (Nutt.) Sprengel var. grisea (Torrey & A. Gray) Barneby [F], Desmodium 
sp., Lespedeza sp., Pediomelum hypogaeum (Nutt. ex Torrey & A. Gray) Rydb. 
var. subulatum (Bush) J. Grimes, Rhynchosia latifolia Nutt. ex Torrey & A. 
Gray, Stylosanthes biflora (L.) B.S.P., Tephrosia virginiana (L.) Pers. 

FAGACEAE -- Quercus incana Bartr., Q. marilandica Muenchh., Q. stellata Wang., 
Castanea alnifolia Nutt. [F]. 

IRIDACEAE -- Alophia drummondii (Graham) R.C. Foster. 

MacRoberts & MacRoberts: Floristics of East Texas sandhills 5 

Table 1. (cont.). 

JUGLANDACEAE -- Carya sp. 

LAMIACEAE -- Monarda punctata L. [S], Scutellaria cardiophylla Engelm. & A. 
Gray, Trichostema dichotomum L. 

LAURACEAE -- Sassafras albidum (Nutt.) Nees. 

LILIACEAE -- Smilax sp. 

LOGANIACEAE -- Gelsemium sempervirens (L.) St. Hil. 

OLEACEAE -- Chionanthus virginicus L. [S]. 

ONAGRACEAE -- Oenothera biennis L. [S]. 

OXALIDACEAE -- Oxalis stricta L. 

PINACEAE -- Pinus echinata P. Mill., P. palustris P. Mill., P. taeda i 

POACEAE -- Andropogon ternarius Michx., Andropogon virginicus L. [S], Aristida 
desmantha Trin. & Rupr., Aristida lanosa Ell., Aristida purpurascens Poir., 
Bouteloua hirsuta Lag. [S], Dichanthelium oligosanthes (Schult.) Gould, D. 
villosissimum (Nash) Freckman, D. sphaerocarpon (Ell.) Gould, Eragrostis 
spectabilis (Pursh) Steud., Gymnopogon ambiguus (Michx.) B.S.P., Paspalum 
spp., Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash, Sorghastrum elliottii (Mohr) Nash 
[F], Sporobolus asper (Michx.) Kunth var. macer (Trin.) Shinners [S], 
Sporobolus junceus (Michx.) Kunth [S]. 

POLY GALACEAE -- Polygala polygama Walt. 

POLY GONACEAE -- Eriogonum longifolium Nutt., Polygonella americana (Fisch. & 
Mey.) Small, P. polygama (Vent.) Engelm. & A. Gray. 

RUBIACEAE -- Diodia teres Walt. 

SAPOTACEAE -- Bumelia lanuginosa (Michx.) Pers. 

SCROPHULARIACEAE -- Aureolaria pectinata (Nutt.) Penn., Linaria canadensis 
(L.) Dum.-Cours. 

SELAGINELLACEAE -- Selaginella arenicola Underw. subsp. riddellii (Van Eselt.) 

SOLANACEAE -- Physalis heterophylla Nees., P. mollis Nutt. 

VERBENACEAE -- Glandularia canadensis (L.) Nutt. [F]. 

VITACEAE -- Ampelopsis arborea (L.) Koehne, Vitis aestivalis Michx., V. 
rotundifolia Michx. 

Table 2. Soil characteristics of two xenc sandhills in San Augustine County. 

6 PHYTOLOGIA January 1996 volume 80(1): 1-7 

Orzell (1990), in his survey of the plant communities of the Texas National 
Forests and Grasslands, found the San Augustine sandhills to be of high quality. We 
concur with this assessment. The sandhills we studied in Caddo Parish, Louisiana 
were decidedly inferior to the Texas sites and contained many exotics, which accounts 
for the relatively low IS between them and the Texas sites. The San Augustine 
sandhills compare favorably to some xeric sandhills we have examined in 
Natchitoches Parish on the Kisatchie National Forest (MacRoberts & MacRoberts 
1994). However, neither of the Texas sites is without damage. A tramway, power 
line right-of-way, an old dump, roads, and plowed firelines mar the San Augustine 
site; while FM 1279 is free of these disturbances, it is fire suppressed. 

The entire area was cut prior to National Forest acquisition in 1936. Part of San 
Augustine sandhill was planted with longleaf pine in the early 1940’s, but this seems 
to have failed and the same area was replanted in the late 1940’s, again with longleaf 
pine. The rest of the longleaf appears to have seeded in naturally. 

During of the course of this study, we bnefly surveyed several other xenc 
sandhills in East Texas, notably in northwest Jasper, southeast Angelina, and southern 
Sabine counties on the Angelina and Sabine National Forests. These often grade 
imperceptibly into upland longleaf pine savannah, but many species fidel to xeric sites 
pinpoint the more xeric extremes. Notably rich in such fidels are the sandhills running 
across the southern part of the Angelina National Forest. Some of these rank in 
quality (and thus ranty) with San Augustine and FM 1279 and should be protected. 


Robert E. Evans, Ecologist, National Forests and Grasslands in Texas, and 
Suzanne Walker, Botanist, Sabine National Forest, were instrumental in making this 
study possible. The study was supported in part by a Challenge Cost-Share 
Agreement with the National Forests and Grasslands in Texas. Robert E. Evans and 
D.T. MacRoberts made helpful comments on an earlier version of this paper. 


Barnes, V.E. 1967. Surface geology map of Texas. Bureau of Economic Geology. 
University of Texas, Austin, Texas. 

Diamond, D.D., D.H. Riskind, & S.L. Orzell. 1987. A framework for plant 
community classification and conservation in Texas. Texas Journal of Science 

Harcombe, P.A., J.S. Glitzenstein, R.G. Knox, S.L. Orzell, & E.L. Bndges. 1993. 
Vegetation of the longleaf pine region of the west gulf coastal plain. Proceedings 
of the Tall Timbers Ecology Conference, No. 18:83-104. 

MacRoberts & MacRoberts: Floristics of East Texas sandhills a 

Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A Synonymized Checklist of the Vascular Flora of the United 
States, Canada, and Greenland. Timber Press, Portland, Oregon. 

Louisiana Natural Heritage Program. 1988. The Natural Communities of Louisiana. 
Unpublished report. Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries, Baton 
Rouge, Louisiana. 

MacRoberts, M.H. & B.R. MacRoberts. 1994. Flonistics of a xenc sandy land in 
western Louisiana. Phytologia 77:414-424. 

MacRoberts, B.R. & M.H. MacRoberts. 1995. Floristics of xenc sandhills in 
northwestern Louisiana. Phytologia 79: 123-131. 

Orzell, S.L. 1990. Texas Natural Heritage Program Inventory of National Forests 
and National Grasslands in Texas. Unpublished report, Texas Parks and Wildlife 
Department, Natural Heritage Program, Austin, Texas. 

Stout, I.J. & W.R. Marion. 1993. Pine flatwoods and xenc pine forests of the 
southern (lower) coastal plain. Pp. 373-446. In W.H. Martin, S.G. Boyce, A.C. 
Echternacht (Eds). Biodiversity of the Southeastern United States: Lowland 

Terrestrial Communities. John Wiley & Sons, New York, New York. 

Teague, J. & T. Wendt. 1994. Caddo and Bossier Parishes, Louisiana: Natural 
Areas Survey. Unpublished report, The Nature Conservancy, Baton Rouge, 

Phytologia (January 1996) 80(1):8-22. 


Ma. de la Luz Arreguin-Sdnchez, Rodolfo Palacios-Chavez, & David Leonor Quiroz- 

Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biolégicas, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Departamento 
de Botanica, Prol. Plan de Ayala y Carpio, Col. Santo Tomas, México D.F. 11340 

Becarios de COFAA del I.P.N. Trabajo parcialmente subsidiado por la Direccion de 
Estudios de Posgrado e Investigaci6n del Instituto Politécnico Nacional (870225) y el 
Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute. 


Se estudia e ilustra al microscopio de luz la morfologia de los granos de 
polen de diez géneros y diesiseis especies de la familia Bignoniaceae de la 
Estaci6n de Biologia Chamela, Jalisco perteneciente a la Universidad 
Aut6noma de México. Comprende los siguientes taxa: Adenocalymma 
inundatum Mart. ex DC., Arrabidaea corallina (Jacq.) Sandw., Arrabidaea 
patellifera (Schlecht.) Sandw., Arrabidaea viscida (Donn.-Sm.) A. Gentry, 
Astianthus viminalis (H.B.K.) Baill., Clytostoma binatum (Thunb.) Sandw., 
Crescentia alata H.B.K., Cydista aequinoctialis (L.) Miers, Cydista 
diversifolia (H.B.K.) Miers, Melloa quadrivalvis (Jacq.) A. Gentry, 
Pithecoctenium crucigerum (L.) A. Gentry, Tabebuia chrysantha (Jacq.) 
Nichols., Tabebuia donnell-smithii Rose, Tabebuia impetiginosa (Mart.) 
Standl., Tabebuia rosea (Bertol.) DC., y Xylophragma seemannianum (Kize.) 
Sandw. Con los datos aqui obtenidos fue posible elaborar una clave 
palinolégica para diferenciar la mayoria de los géneros y las especies. 

Se discute la posici6n taxondémica de algunos taxa y se dan algunas 
interpretaciones tomando en consideraci6n la morfologia del polen. 

PALABRAS CLAVE: palinologia, Bignoniaceae, Chamela, Jalisco, México 

Pollen grain morphology of ten genera and sixteen species of Bignoniaceae 

from Estacién de Biologia Chamela, Jalisco belonging to the Universidad 
Nacional Aut6noma de México are described and illustrated using the light 


Arreguin-Sanchez et al.: Bignoniaceae pollen morphology 9 

microscope, the taxa described are: Adenocalymma inundatum Mart. ex DC., 
Arrabidaea corallina (Jacq.) Sandw., Arrabidaea patellifera (Schlecht.) 
Sandw., Arrabidaea viscida (Donn.-Sm.) A. Gentry, Astianthus viminalis 
(H.B.K.) Baill., Clytostoma binatum (Thunb.) Sandw., Crescentia alata 
FRB KS Cydista aequinoctialis (L.) Miers, Cydista diversifolia (H.B.K.) 
Miers, Melloa quadrivalvis (Jacq.) A. Gentry, Pithecoctenium crucigerum (L.) 
A. Gentry, Tabebuia chrysantha (Jacq.) Nichols, Tabebuia donnell-smithii 
Rose, Tabebuia impetiginosa (Mart.) Standl., Tabebuia rosea (Bertol) DC., 
and Xylophragma seemannianum (Ktze.) Sandw. A key for separation of 
most genera and species by pollen grain characteristics is included. 

Taxonomic position of some taxa is discussed taking into account some 
interpretations and discrepancies based on pollen grains studied. 

KEY WORDS: palinology, Bignoniaceae, Chamela, Jalisco, México 


E] presente trabajo forma parte de los estudios sobre la flora polfnica de la Estacion 
de Biologfa Chamela, Jalisco, México, que Palacios-Chavez ef al. (1986) vienen 

La familia Bignoniaceae comprende 110 géneros y 750 especies (Lawrence 1951), 
distnbufdas en las zonas tropicales de casi todo el mundo, la mayoria son drboles, 
arbustos o lianas, rara vez hierbas. En la Estacién de Biologia Chamela, Jalisco, 
México prosperan diez géneros y diesiseis especies (Lott 1985). 


Entre los estudios palinolégicos de esta familia se tienen los de Erdtman (1966), 
quien describe brevemente 25 especies correspondientes a veinte géneros. Palacios- 
Chavez (1966) descnbe e ilustra cuatro géneros y cinco especies del estado de 
Morelos. Mitra (1968) estudia 32 géneros y distingue doce tipos polinicos basandose 
en las aberturas, concluye que la familia debe ser polifilética por la gran diversidad 
palinolégica y la presencia de tipos polinicos pnmitivos y avanzados y Heusser (1971) 
estudia cuatro géneros y cuatro especies para Chile, con breves descnpciones y 
fotomicrograffas. Huang (1972) describe brevemente e ilustra cuatro géneros y cuatro 
especies de Taiwan. Suryakanta (1973) estudia 47 géneros y 84 especies y menciona 
que la evolucién de las aberturas del polen proviene de un colpo espiraperturado, 
ademas indica que las Bignoniaceae que crecen como lianas presentan mds vanaciones 
en el polen que las arbustivas o arboles y que los géneros herbdceos se caractenzan por 
tener un gran numero de aberturas. Buurman (1977) estudia las especies tricolporadas 
en 83 géneros de la familia Bignoniaceae. Markgraf & D’Antoni (1978) observan e 
ilustran el de tres géneros y tres especies de la Argentina. Gentry & Tomb (1979) 
estudian el polen de 63 taxa al microscopio electrénico de barmdo y mencionan 26 

10 PHYTOLOGIA January 1996 volume 80(1):8-22 

tipos polfnicos para la familia, relacionan la morfologia del polen con la taxonomia de 
la familia y las lfneas evolutivas que han propuesto otros autores. Fernandes-Silvestre 
& Melhem (1989) describen e ilustran al microscopio de luz y de barndo diesinueve 
géneros del parque estatal das Fontes do Opiranga en Sao Paulo, Brasil. Roubick & 
Moreno (1991) describen e ilustran veinte géneros y 31 especies de la Isla Barro 
Colorado, Panamd. Palacios-Chdvez ef al. (1991) para la flora de la reserva de Sian 
Ka'an, Quintana Roo, México describen e ilustran seis géneros y ocho especies. Bove 
(1993) estudia al microscopio de luz y de barrido la morfologia de diesinueve géneros 
y 33 especies de Bignoniaceae nativas del sur de Brasil. 


Las muestras de polen fueron tomadas principalmente de los ejemplares de 
herbario depositados en el museo de la Estaci6én de Biologia Chamela, Jalisco y del 
Herbario del Instituto de Biologia de la Universidad Nacional Aut6noma de México 
(MEXU). Cuando no se pudo tomar polen de esa coleccién, por carecer de flores, las 
muestras polfnicas se obtuvieron de ejemplares colectados en diversos lugares de la 
Republica Mexicana previa corroboracién de la identificaci6n de los mismos como fue 
el caso de Arrabidaea patellifera, cuyo polen se tomo del ejemplar depositado en el 
herbario de la Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biolégicas (ENCB). 

El polen fue tratado con la técnica de acetdlisis de Erdtman (1943), para 
observacién al microscopio de luz, y las preparaciones se encuentran depositadas en la 
palinoteca de la Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biolégicas del Instituto Politécnico 

La secuencia que se sigue en las descnpciones palinolégicas es la de Hyde, H.A. 
& K.F. Adams (1958). 

En las fotomicrograffas se incluye una escala que representa 10 micras. 


Adenocalymma inundatum Mart. ex DC., Estacién de Biologia Chamela, Jalisco, 
S.H. Bullock 1202 (MEXU). Ldmina I, Figuras 1 a 3. 

Polen inaperturado, intectado, esferoidal de 48(55)65 x 48(59)56 py de didmetro. 
Exina de 1.6 yw de grosor, con la nexina y sexina de igual espesor, superficialmente 
equinada. Espinas romas y puntiagudas de 2(3)4 w de altura x 1(2)3 p de base. 

Arreguin-Sdanchez et al.: Bignoniaceae pollen morphology 11 

10 12 

Lamina |. Adenocalymma inundatum: \.- Exina a seco fuerte; 2.- Vista superficial a 
seco fuerte; 3.- Detalle de la omamentacion, inmercién. Arrabidaea corallina: 4.- 
Vista ecuatonal mostrando colpos; 5.- Vista ecuatonal mostrando colpos_ y 
oramentaci6on; 6.- Vista polar, omamentacion. Arrabidaea patellifera: 7.- Vista 
ecuatonal, exina, y colpos; 8.- Vista ecuatonal, detalle de los colpos; 9.- Vista polar, 
ornamentacion. Arrabidaea viscida: 10.- Vista ecuatonal, mostrando los colpos; 1 1.- 
Vista polar, exina; 12.- Vista polar, ornamentacion. 

12 PHY TOLOGIA January 1996 volume 80(1):8-22 

if : 18 

Lamina II. Astianthus viminalis: 13.- Vistas polar y ecuatonal, mostrando los colpos, 
y exina; 14.- Vista polar, omamentaci6n. Clytostoma binatum: 15.- Grosor de la 
exina; 16.- Detalle de la ormamentacién y exina; 17.- Detalle de la omamentacion. 
Crescentia alata 18.- Vista ecuatonal, exina y colpos; 19.- Vista ecuatonal, 
omamentacién: 20.- Vista polar, ornamentaci6n. Cydista aequinoctialis: 21.- Grosor 
de la exina; 22 y 23.- Detalle de la omamentacién. 

Arreguin-Sanchez et al.: Bignoniaceae pollen morphology 13 

3 ; 35 

Lamina III. Cydista diversifolia: 24.- Grosor de la exina; 25.- Detalle de la 
omamentacion. Melloa quadrivalvis: 26.- Vista ecuatonal, colpos; 27.- Vista polar, 
exina; 28.- Vista polar, omamentacion. Pithecoctenium crucigerum: 29.- Exina a seco 
fuerte; 30.- Oramentacion a seco fuerte; 31.- Detalle de la exina y oramentaci6n a 
inmercion. Tabebuia chrysantha: 32.- Vista ecuatonal mostrando la exina y colpos: 
33.- Vista ecuatonal mostrando omamentacion y colpos; 34.- Vista polar, exina; 35.- 
Vista polar, ornamentacion. 

14 PHY T.OEOG fA January 1996 volume 80(1):8-22 



Lamina [V. TYabebuia donnell-smithii: 36.- Vista ecuatonal, mostrando exina y 
colpos; 37.- Vista ecuatonal, ornamentacion, y colpos; 38.- Vista polar, exina, 39.- 
Vista polar, omamentacion. Tabebuia impetiginosa: 40.- Vista ecuatonal, exina; 41.- 
Vista ecuatonal, colpos; 42.- Vista ecuatonal, ormamentaci6n; 43.- Vista polar, exina; 
44.- Vista polar, ornamentacion. 

Arreguin-Sanchez et al.: Bignoniaceae pollen morphology 15 

Ldmina V. Tabebuia rosea: 45.- Vista ecuatorial, colpos, y exina; 46.- Vista 
ecuatonal, detalle de la exina; 47.- Vista polar, omamentaci6n, 48.- Vista polar, exina. 
Xylophragma seemannianum: 49.- Vista ecuatonal, exina, y colpos; 50.- Vista 
ecuatorial, ornamentacion, y colpos; 51. Vista polar, exina. 

16 PHYTOLOGIA January 1996 volume 80(1):8-22 

Arrabidaea corallina (Jacq.) Sandw., 5 Km al W de Rizo de Oro, sobrela carretera 
190, Mpio. Cintalapa de Figueroa, Chiapas, D.E. Breedlove 24639 (MEXU). 
Lamina I, Figuras 4 a 6. 

Polen tricolporado, semitectado, esferoidal de 34(38)42 x 32(35)38 yp. P/E= 
1.09. Vista polar circular de 33(39)41 : de didmetro. Exina de 2.4 yw de grosor, con 
la sexina y la nexina de igual espesor, ligeramente reticulada. Colpos cubiertos con 
membranas lisas y con terminaciones agudas. Colpos transversales de 4{7)9 p de 
largo x 1(3)5 de ancho. Indice del drea polar 0.16, pequena. 

Arrabidaea patellifera (Schlecht.) Sandw., Al norte de Valle Nacional, Mpio. San José 
Chiltepec, Oaxaca, S.D. Koch & P.A. Fryxell 78194 (ENCB). Lamina I, Figuras 

Polen tricolporado, tectado, subprolato, de 39(41)45 x 28(32)36 pw. P/E= 1.28. 
Vista polar circular de 39(42)47 ps de didmetro. Exina de 2 w de grosor, con la sexina 
mucho mds gruesa que la nexina, superficie puntitegilada. Colpos cubiertos con 

membranas lisas. Colpos transversales de 9(12)16 de largo x 2(3)4 pw de ancho. 
Indice del area polar 0.25, media. 

Arrabidaea viscida (Donn.-Sm.) A. Gentry, Estacién de Biologia Chamela, Jalisco, A. 
Solis 726 (MEXU). Laémina I, Figuras 10 a 12. 

Polen tricolpado, tectado, prolato de 29(37)40 x 24(27)32 p. P/E= 1.37. Vista 

polar circular de 28(33)39 p de didmetro. Exina de 1.6 p de grosor, con la sexina y la 
nexina de igual espesor, superficialmente escabrosa. Margocolpados, colpos cubiertos 

con membranas lisas, margo de 1.6 p de ancho. Indice del area polar 0.25, pequena. 

Astianthus viminalis (H.B.K.) Baill., Estacidn de Biologia Chamela, Jalisco, E. Lott 
1045 (MEXU). Lamina II, Figuras 13 y 14. 

Polen tricolpado, tectado, psilado, subprolato de 25(30)35 x 22(24)27 uw. P/E= 
1.25. Vista polar circular de 25.0(28.0)30.4 de didmetro. Exina de 1.6 p de 
grosor, sexina mucho mds gruesa que la nexina, superficialmente psilada. Colpos 

cubiertos con membranas lisas, bordeados por un margo de 1 w de ancho. Indice del 
area polar 0.14, pequena. 

Clytostoma binatum (Thunb.) Sandw., Estacién de Biologia Chamela, Jalisco, E. Lott 
1114 (MEXU). Lamina II, Figuras 15 a 17. 

Arreguin-Sanchez et al.: Bignoniaceae pollen morphology 17 

Polen inaperturado, semitectado, esferoidal de 45(46)49 x 41(43)44 uw. Exina de 
2.4 uw de grosor, sexina y nexina de igual espesor, superficialmente perreticulada, con 
lumenes menores de | p de didmetro. 

Crescentia alata H.B.K., Estacion de Biologia Chamela, Jalisco, S.H. Bullock 973 
(MEXU). Lamina II, Figuras 18 a 20. 

Polen tricolpado, semitectado, esferoidal de 45(49)54 x 42(44)46 up. P/E= 1.11. 

Vista polar circular de 40(46)50 ys de didmetro. Exina de 2.4 uw de grosor, sexina 
ligeramente de mayor espesor que la nexina, superficialmente perreticulada con luenes 

de aproximadamente | p de didmetro. Colpos cubiertos con membranas lisas. Indice 
del area polar 0.17, pequena. 

Cydista aequinoctialis (L.) Miers, Estaci6n de Biologia Chamela, Jalisco, EF. Lott 456 
(MEXU). Lamina II, Figuras 21 a 23. 

Polen inaperturado, esferoidal, semitectado, de 40.0(43.5)48.0 x 40(46)50 u. 
Exina de 3.3 wr de grosor, con la sexina y la nexina de igual espesor, superficialmente 
perreticulada con ltimenes de 2 a 3 pt de didmetro. 

Cydista diversifolia (H.B.K.) Miers, Estacién de Biologia Chamela, Jalisco, A. Solis 
1678 (MEXU). Lamina III, Figuras 24 y 2S. 

Polen inaperturado, semitectado, esferoidal de 35.5(39.6)42.3 x 32.9(37.6)42.3 

uw. Exina de 2.5 p de grosor, sexina y nexina de igual espesor, superficialmente 
perreticulada con luimenes de 2 a3 1 de didmetro. 

Melloa quadrivalvis (Jacq.) A. Gentry, Estacion de Biologia Chamela, Jalisco L.A. 
Pérez 1768 (MEXU). Lamina III, Figuras 26 a 28. 

Polen tncolpado, tectado, esferoidal, de 38.0(40.1)43.0 x 33.0(38.6)41.5 uw. 

P/E= 1.03. Vista polar circular de 38(41)43 ww de didmetro. Exina de 1.5 pu de 
espesor, sexina y nexina de igual grosor, escabrosa. Indice del area polar 0.16, 

Pithecoctenium crucigerum (L.) A. Gentry, Estacién de Biologia Chamela, Jalisco, A. 
Solis 3704 (MEXU). Lamina III, Figuras 29 a 31. 

18 PEAY TORO GTA January 1996 volume 80(1):8-22 

Polen inaperturado, semitectado, esferoidal de 62.6(69.7)77.0 x 57.5(65.5)71.0 
um. Exina de 6.7 w de grosor, sexina mucho mds gruesa que la nexina, perreticulada, 
con lumenes de 3 a 5 p de didmetro. 

Tabebuia chrysantha (Jacq.) Nichols., Estacién de Biologia Chamela, Jalisco, S.H. 
Bullock 1274 (MEXU). Lamina III, Figuras 32 a 35. 

Polen tricolporado, tectado, esferoidal de 33.0(35.6)38.0 x 29.6(30.8)33.8 uw. 

P/E= 1.15. Vista polar circular de 28.5(31.7)34.6 de didmetro. Exina de 1.5 p de 
espesor, sexina y nexina de igual grosor, levemente reticulada, con limenes menores 

de 1 w de didmetro. Colpos cubiertos con membranas lisas. Colpos transversales de 
4(5)6 p de largo x 1.5(2.0)2.5 p de ancho. Indice del area polar 0.38, media. 

Tabebuia donnell-smithii Rose, Estaci6n de Biologia Chamela, Jalisco, S.H. Bullock 
1309 (MEXU). Lamina IV, Figuras 36 a 39. 

Polen tricolpado a veces tncolporoidado, tectado, subprolato de 26.0(31.8)32.4 x 
23.6(27.0)29.6 w. P/E= 1.17. Vista polar circular de 27.0(29.5)31.3 wu de didmetro. 
Exina de 2.5 p de grosor, sexina dos veces mds gruesa que la nexina, reticulada con 

lmenes de aproximadamente 1 pp. Colpos de las membranas lisas. En algunos 
granos se aprecia un poro difuso. Indice del area polar 0.25, pequena. 

Tabebuia impetiginosa (Mart.) Standl., Estacion de Biologia Chamela, Jalisco, S.H. 
Bullock 1277 (MEXU). Lamina IV, Figuras 40 a 44. 

Polen tncolpado, tectado, prolato de 44.8(47.3)50.0 x 32.0(34.3)36.3 p. P/E= 
1.37. Vista polar circular de 37.0(40.5)42.3 de didmetro. Exina de 2.5 w de 

grosor, sexina y nexina de igual espesor, reticulada con lumenes de 1.5 a 2 w de 
didmetro. Colpos con las membranas lisas. Indice del drea polar 0.30, media. 

Tabebuia rosea (Bertol.) DC., Estacion de Biologia Chamela, Jalisco, S.H. Bullock 
83 (MEXU). Lamina V. Figuras 45 a 48. 

Polen tncolpado a tncolporoidado, tectado, prolato de 55.0(57.2)59.2. x 
36.3(39.6)43.0 pw. P/E= 1.44. Vista polar circular de 49.0(53.0)55.8 ww de didmetro. 
Exina de 2.5 u de grosor, sexina dos veces mas gruesa que la nexina, reuculada, con 

lumenes de aproximadamente | pw de didmetro. Colpos cubiertos con membranas 
lisas, en algunos granos se aprecia un poro difuso y en otros granos se observa un 

poro de 1(2)3 uw de didmetro. Indice del area polar 0.16, pequefia. 

Arreguin-Sanchez et al.: Bignoniaceae pollen morphology 19 

Xylophragma seemannianum (Ktze.) Sandw., Estacion de Biologia Chamela, Jalisco, 
J.A. Solis 679 (MEXU). Lamina V. Figuras 49 a 51. 

Polen tncolpado a tncolporoidado, tectado, esferoidal de 50.0(51.3)52.4 x 
45.6(47.6)50.0 p. P/E= 1.07. Vista polar circular de 50.0(52.6)54.0 wt de didmetro. 

Exina de 2.5 u de grosor, nexina y sexina de igual espesor, reticulada con |umenes de 

1.0 a 1.5 de didmetro. Colpos con membranas lisas, en algunos granos se observa 
un pequeno poro difuso. Indice del drea polar 0.35, media. 


1.- Polen inaperturado. 
2 Polen equinado.:<:1:5:-.-.. Adenocalymma inundatum Lamina |, Figuras | a 3 
2.- Polen perreticulado. 

>— Granos de‘polen mayores de 70 i dedidmetro....22..2...57:. Ree 
ee ase eee Pithecoctenium crucigerum Lamina III, Figuras 29 a 31 

3.- Granos de polen menores de 70 p: de didmetro. 

- Dimenesimenorsimdes! ede: diametroriw oe Ses ee 
a ener eee Clytostoma binatum |_Amina II, Figuras 15a 17 

4.- Lumenes mayores de | w de didmetro. 

= xine MavOR Me SiMOe PEOSOR Ot 2292: 2 40.6111. su uhn oevenewememan vee acsues 
RRS. BF. 2 Cydista aequinoctialis Lamina I1, Figuras 21 a 23 

JE MinamMenor de.3 de PrOSOM, lee .6 520 peered ass oeceeeee toe 
ear ee esehey Cota Cydista diversifolia (Lamina III, Figuras 24 y 25 
1.- Polen tricolporado, tncolpado, o tricolporoidado. 
6.- Polen tncolporado. 
7.- Granos de polen esferoidales, superficie de la exina levemente reticulada. . . 
aR OS, bile Ce a By ns ae gs Arrabidaea corallina Lamina |, Figuras 4a 6 
sa ence se toes eee ee ee Tabebuia chrysantha Lamina II, Figuras 32 a 35 
7.- Granos de polen subprolato, superficie de la exina puntitegilada. ............ 
besser See ite are ee Arrabidaea patellifera Lamina |, Figuras 7 a9 
6.- Polen tnicolpado o tricolporoidado. 
8.- Granos de polen esferoidales. 
9.7 Gras: se DOLE HG CSC ADIOS OS ee Wea Sd st atin ace 
ahah Bene, Melloa quadrivalvis Lamina III, Figuras 26 a 28 
9.- Granos de polen reticulados 0 perreticulados. 
10.- Indice delMarea polaripentena:: i) ...0- cast ee-- agente ok 
Pie ie AR oa Crescentia alata Lamina ll, Figuras 18 a 20 
NO; IO eal eel RAM as oacre actenacie ee nae ee Prout ree Va ee 
ey aia Xylophragma seemannianum Lamina V, Figuras 49 a 51 
8.- Granos de polen prolatos a subprolatos. 
11.- Polen margocolpado. ..Arrabidaea viscida Lamina 1, Figuras 10a 12 

20 PH Or OGiys January 1996 volume 80(1):8-22 

11.- Polen nunca margocolpado. 
12.- Polen psilado... Astianthus viminalis Lamina II, Figuras 13 y 14 
12.- Polen reticulado. 
18=Polenimenorde4siwideldiametiose espace eee ee eee 
JACEE Tabebuia donnell-smithii Lamina IV, Figuras 36 a 39 

13.- Polen mayor de 45 uu de didmetro. 

14 Lumeneside’l.5a'2:0'n deidiametro:<. “>. 22.2 ee eee 
a Eee Tabebuia impetiginosa LaéminalV, Figuras 40 a 44 

14.- Lumenes de mas 0 menos | wt de didmetro................... 
seagate Tabebuia rosea Lamina V, Figuras 45 a 48 


La familia Bignoniaceae es eunipalinolégica, y al comparar la morfologia del polen 
con las subdivisiones taxonomicas realizadas por Schumann (1895), y Gentry & 
Tomb (1979), encontramos que estos autores separan a la familia en las siguientes 

BIGNONIEAE: Arrabidaea, Melloa, Xylophragma, Clystostoma,  Cydista, 
Adenocalymma, Pithecoctenium 

TECOMEAE: Tabebuia 

El género Astianthus no fue considerado en los sistemas de clasificacion 

Al comparar las divisiones taxonomicas de la familia con la morfologia del polen 
en este trabajo encontramos lo siguiente: 

Arrabidaea corallina y A. viscida presentan polen tncolporado y pertenece a la 
tnbu Bignonieae. 

Melloa quadrivalvis, Xylophragma seemannianum, Tabebuia chrysantha, T. 
donnell-smithii, T. impetiginosa, T rosea, y Crescentia alata con polen tncolpado, 
tricolporoidado a tncolporado, el pnmer género con omamentacidn escabrosa y los 
otros tres con omamentacion reticulada a perreticulada. Melloa y Xvlophragma 
pertenecen a la tnbu Bignonieae, Tabebuia a la Tecomeae y Crescentia a la tnbu 

Tabebuia se cita en la bibliograffa con polen tncolpado a tetracolpado, sin 
embargo, en las especies estudiadas para la Estaci6n de Biologia Chamela, Jalisco 
encontramos que las aberturas vanan desde la tricolpada, tncolporoidada a tncolporada 
y tomando en consideracion las aberturas, el tamano del polen, y el tamano de los 
lumenes es factible la separaci6n de las especies. 

Arreguin-Sanchez et al.: Bignoniaceae pollen morphology oS | 

Clytostoma binatum, Cydista aequinoctialis, Pithecoctenium crucigerum, y 
Adenocalymma inundatum pertenecen a la tibu Bignonieae, los tres primeros géneros 
presentan polen inaperturado con lumenes de diferentes didmetros y el ulumo género 
con polen equinado. 

Astianthus viminalis presenta polen tncolpado, psilado, diferente al polen de las 
otras Bignoniaceae descritas para la Estaci6n de Biologia Chamela, Jalisco. 

Por todo lo antenor, se puede apreciar que no existe una relaciOn entre las 
divisiones taxondémicas y la morfologia del polen y posiblemente este taxa pueda 
pertenecer a otra subdivisi6n taxondémica no considerada por autores como Schumann 
(1895) y Gentry & Tomb (1979). 

En el caso de los taxa estudiados para la estacién de Biologia Chamela, Jalisco, es 
factible separar casi todos los taxa por medios palinoldgicos tomando en consideracion 
el tipo de aberturas que se presentan, la omamentaci6n, tamano, forma del polen y el 
indice del drea polar. 

Cydista diversifolia fue descnto al microscopio electrénico de barrido por Gentry 
& Tomb (1979) como pericolpado, sin embargo, el polen de los ejemplares de 
Chamela, Jalisco se observan inaperturados al microscopio de luz. Asi también, estos 
mismos autores indican que Cydista aequinoctialis presenta la mayoria de los granos 
de polen como inaperturados con reticulo medio, aunque también presentan granos 
pericolpados. El ejemplar de Chamela Jalisco, presenta polen inaperturado. 


1.- Bove, P.C. 1993. Pollen morphology of the Bignoniaceae from a south Brazilian 
Auantic forest. Grana 32:330-337. 

2.- Buurman, J. 1977. Contnbution to the pollen morphology of the Bignoniaceae 
with special reference to the tnicolpate type. Pollen & Spores 19:447-519. 

3.- Erdtman, G. 1943. An Introduction to Pollen Analysis. Ronald Press, New 
York, New York. 239 pp. 

4.- Erdtman, G. 1966. Pollen Morphology and Plant Taxonomy Angiosperms. 
Hafner Publishing Co., New York, New York. 553 pp. 

5.- Fernandes-Silvestre, M.T. & T.S. Melhem. 1989. Flora polinica da reserva do 
parque estadual das fontes do Ipirangua (Sao Paulo, Brasil). Hoehnea 16:211- 

6.- Gentry, A.H. & A.S. Tomb. 1979. Taxonomic implications of Bignoniaceae 
palynology. Ann. Missoun Bot. Gard. 66:756-777. 

7.- Heusser, C.J. 1971. Pollen and Spores of Chile. The University of Anzona 
Press, Tucson, Arizona. 167 pp. 

8.- Huang, T.C. 1972. Pollen Flora of Taiwan. National Taiwan University Botany 
Department Press, Taipei, Taiwan. 276 pp. 

9.- Hyde, H.A. & K.F. Adams. 1958. An Allas of Airborne Pollen Grains. 
Macmillan London and St. Martin’s Press, New York, New York. 112 pp. 

22 PHO MOM OIGIPA January 1996 volume 80(1):8-22 

10.- Lawrence, G.H.M. 1951. Taxonomy of Vascular Plants. New York, New 
York. 823 pp. 

11.- Lott, E. 1985. Listados floristicos de México III. La Estaci6n de Biologia 
Chamela, Jalisco. Instituto de Biologia. Universidad Nacional Aut6noma de 
México. México, D.F. 47 pp. 

12.- Markgraf & D. Antoni. 1978. Pollen Flora of Argentina. The University of 
Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona. 208 pp. 

13.- Mitra, K. 1968. Pollen morphology in Bignoniaceae in relation to taxonomy. 
Bull. Bot. Surv. India 10:319-326. 

14.- Palacios-Chdvez, R. 1966. Morfologia de los granos de polen de arboles del 
estado de Morelos. An Esc. Nac. Cienc. Bidl. Méx. 16:41-169. 

15.- Palacios-Chavez, R., D.L. Quiroz-Garcia, D. Ramos-Zamora, & M.L. Arreguin- 
Sdnchez. 1986. Flora polinica del bosque tropical caducifolio de Chamela, 
Jalisco, México. Presentacién. Phytologia 61(3): 147-149. 

16.- Palacios-Chdvez, R., B. Ludlow-Wiechers, & R. Villanueva. 1991. Flora 
palinoldgica de la reserva de la biosfera de Sian Ka’an, Quintana Roo, México. 
Centro de Investigaciones de Quintana Roo. 321 pp. 

17.- Roubick, D.W. & J.E. Moreno. 1991. Pollen and Spores of Barro Colorado 
Island. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis Missouri. 270 pp. 

18.- Suryakanta. 1973. Pollen morphological studies in the Bignoniaceae. Journal of 
Palynology 9(1):45-82. 

19.- Schumann, K. 1895. Bignoniaceae. Jn: Engler & Prantl. Die Natiirlichen 
Pflanzenfamilien 1V (3b): 189-252. 

Phytologia (January 1996) 80(1):23-29 


Walter C. Holmes & Daniel E. Wivagg 

Department of Biology, Baylor University, Waco, Texas 76798 -7388 U.S.A. 


Centaurium muhlenbergii is reported as new to Louisiana, Mississippi, and 
Texas. The species is compared with and distinguished from the apparently 
closely related C. pulchellum. A key to the two species, a list of specimens 
examined, and a distribution map are also included. Three other Centaurium 
species mentioned as occurring in Louisiana are also discussed. 

KEY WORDS: Gentianaceae, Centaurium, Louisiana, Mississippi, Texas 

Centaurium is a taxonomically difficult genus of about 60 species of Old and New 
World distribution. Two species that occur in the United States, Centaurium 
muhlenbergii (Griseb.) Piper, a native, and C. pulchellum (Sw.) Druce, an exotic 
from Europe, bear close resemblance to each other. Both are annuals, lack rosettes or 
may have weakly developed ones, and possess small flowers with corolla lobes 2-5 
mm long. The similarity of the two species, coupled with their previous mutually 
exclusive distnbutions in the United States (which hinders direct field comparison), 
have resulted in taxonomic uncertainty concerning the correct status of the plants. 
Pnor to this study, C. muhlenbergii was known from central Washington south to 
central California, western Nevada, and Idaho (Cronquist ef al. 1983). Centaurium 
pulchellum is widely distributed in eastern United States (Fernald 1950; Small 1933). 
Both Cronquist ef al. (1983) and Hickman (1993) consider C. floribundum (Benth.) 
Robinson to be synonymous with C. muhlenbergii and further suggest that the latter 
name may well be reduced to synonymy under C. pulchellum. The present paper 1s 
intended to clanfy the status of C. muhlenbergii and C. pulchellum, and document 
their distnbution in the states treated. Additionally, reports of C. calycosum (Buckl.) 
Fern., C. erythraea Raf., and C. texense (Grseb.) Fern. in Louisiana will be 

volume 8(( 1):23-29 

January 1996 


ium muhlenbergti (closed circles) and 

C. pulchellum (open circles) in Texas, Louisiana, and Mississipp1. 

of Centaur 

Figure 1. Documented distn bution 

Holmes & Wivagg: Centaurium in Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas pis) 

Table 1. A summary of the major differences between Centaurium pulchellum and C. 
muhlenber git. 

. Se C. pulchellum C. muhlenbergii 


Inflorescence open, spreading compound | dense, © flat topped 
dichasium umbellate cyme 
ae re ce ere 
Epicalyx separated from calyx at very base of calyx 
Peak flowering time 15 Apnl-24 May 

* See text for further explanation. 

The study is based upon field observations and collections of both species and 
examination of herbarium specimens or photostatic copies of specimens from ASTC, 

While Centaurium muhlenbergii and C. pulchellum have overall similanty, 
especially flower and leaf charactenstics, there are substantial differences (Table 1) 
that evidence the distinctness of each. One item in the table requires further 
explanation. Whether a flower is sessile or pedicelled is determined by the location of 
the epicalyx, the two bracts subtending the calyx. In pedicelled flowers, the epicalyx 
is Slightly separated from the calyx, while in sessile flowers the calyx is immediately 
subtended by the epicalyx. This trait is more apparent on the lateral flowers of the 
ultimate cymes. 

Although the plants may be distinguished by use of the table, the following key, 

adapted in part from Hickman (1993), provides for accurate and easy distinction 
between the two plants. 

|. Flowers essentially sessile; inflorescence umbellate-cymose, dense, flat topped; 

plant normally branching in the upper one-third to one-fourth. ..... C. muhlenbergii 
1. Flowers pedicelled; inflorescence an open compound dichasium, not flat topped; 
plant normally branching in the lower one-half. ........................ C. pulchellum 

This is the first report of Centaurium muhlenbergii (which includes the 
synonymous C. floribundum) in Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas. The size of the 

26 PHY TOLOGIA January 1996 volume 80( 1):23-29 

plant (up to 55 cm), dense clusters of bright pink flowers, colonial nature, and mainly 
roadside occurrence make the species very easy to locate, thus suggesting it to be a 
rather recent arrival. This is supported by the earliest known Texas specimen 
[Amerson 510 (BRIT)] being collected in 1971 and the earliest located Louisiana 
specimen [Thieret 26682 (LAF)] being collected in 1968, but both being misidentified 
as either C. pulchellum or C. texense. The only Mississippi record was collected in 
1989. Figure | shows the documented distribution of the species in the three states. 

Specimens examined: Louisiana. Avoyelles Parish: Pinewoods along Big Creek 
at North Point, ca. 5 miles N of Effie on Hwy 115, 2 Jun 1979, Allen 8747 & Vincent 
2011 (NLU); Bienville Parish: Median of I-20 at rest area W of Hwy 154 and E of 
Ada exit W of Arcadia, Sec. 8, T18N, R7W, 11 Jun 1987, Thomas 100093, Dorris, 
& Day (NLU); Bossier Parish; East bank of the Red River, 1.2 miles SE of the 
Barksdale Highway bridge on Hwy 71, Sec. 10, T17N, R13W, 14 Jun 1976, Leggett 
& Leggett 1771 (NLU); Caddo Parish: Texas & Pacific Railroad in S Shreveport at 
intersection of Hollywood & Jewella, Sec. 22, T17N, R14W, 29 May 1982, Lewis 
3515 (NLU); K.C.S. Railroad and Hwy 173 at overpass S of Blanchard, NW part of 
Sec. 29, T18N, R14W, 10 Jun 1975, Thomas 45375 & Thomas (BAYLU [photo], 
LSU,NLU); Northern edge of Kansas City Southern Railroad Yard W of Hwy 173 at 
North Lakeshore Dnve S of Blanchard, Sec. 19, T18N, R14W, 28 Jun 1979, 
Thomas 66460 (BAY LU [photo],LSU,NLU); Prairie area along Wallace Lake Road S 
of Overton Road S of Shreveport and N of Wallace Lake, Sec. 30, TI6N, R13W, 15 
Jun 1990, Thomas 119136 & Raymond (NLU); 1-220 E of Hwy 71 and Hwy 1 N 
exit in Shreveport, Sec. 15, T18N, R14W, 8 Jul 1994, Thomas 140263 (BAYLU); 
Rapides Parish: Roadbank of Hwy 165 and Hwy 3026, just S of Kingsville, Sec. 36, 
TSN, R1W, i8 Jun 1978, Pias & Breard 3577 (NLU); “Ruins” of Camp Beauregard, 
3 miles SE of Simms, ca. 9 miles NE of Pineville, Sec. 33, 12 Jun 1967, Thieret 
26682 (LAF); Red River Parish: High bluffs of Red River, across from Coushatta, 
1.8 miles S of U.S. Hwy 84, 17 Jun 1983, Gilmore 1833 (LTU). Mississippi. 
Smith Co.: Tallahala Wildlife Mgmt. Area ca. 1 mi. N of Clear Springs, NW1/4 of 
NE1/4 Sec. 26, T4N, R9E, 22 Jun 1989, Carraway 895 (IBE). Texas. Ellis Co.: 
5.9 miles N of Avalon on Farm Market Road 55 near Little Onion Creek, 22 Jun 
1994, Holmes 7268 & Wivagg (BAYLU); Falls Co.: 0.5 mile W of Big Creek on Tx. 
Hwy 7, ca. 6.5 miles E of Marlin, 17 Jun 1994, Holmes 7237 & Wivagg (BAYLU); 
Freestone Co.: Tx. Hwy 164, 3.3 miles E of the Limestone Co. line, 9 Jun 1994, 
Holmes 7165 & Wivagg (BAYLU);N side Tx. Hwy 164 at Fulton Hill, 4.2 miles E 
of Donie, 16 May 1995, Holmes 7683 (BAYLU); Hardin Co.: Between Batson and 
Saratoga near West Hardin Schoolhouse, 7 Jun 1971, Amerson 510 (BRIT); Hill Co.: 
0.3 mile W of Mt. Calm on Tx. Hwy 31, 22 Jun 1994, Holmes 7259 & Wivagg 
(BAYLU); Johnson Co.: Farm Road 916, 1.5 miles W of the Ellis Co. line, ca. 4.2 
miles east of Grandview, 22 Jun 1994, Holmes 7274 & Wivagg (BAY LU); Leon Co.: 
Roadside, Tx. Hwy 7, just E of the Robertson Co. line, ca. 2 miles W of Marquez, 17 
Jun 1994, Holmes 7243 & Wivagg (BAYLU); Limestone Co.: Tx. Hwy 164, 4.5 
miles W of Personville, ca. 100 m east of Turkey Creek, 3 Jun 1994, Holmes 7138 
(BAYLU); Jct. Limestone Co. Roads 905 & 894, just east of Lake Limestone, 17 Jun 
1994, Holmes 7257 & Wivagg (BAYLU); McLennan Co.: F.M. 3400, ca. 1/2 miles 
SE of Loop 340, ca. 3 miles SE of Waco, 20 Jun 1991, Holmes 5278 (BAYLU); 
Milam Co.: Tx. Hwy 36, just S of the Little River bidge, S of Cameron, 26 Jun 
1994, Holmes 7295 & Wivagg (BAYLU); Navarro Co.: ca. 3 miles NE of Hubbard 
on Tx. Hwy 31, just E of the Hill Co. line, 22 Jun 1994, Holmes 7263 & Wivagg 
(BAYLU); Robertson Co.: Tx. Hwy 7, ca. 9.5 miles E of Kosse on Tx. Hwy 7, ca. 

Holmes & Wivagg: Centaurium in Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas 27 

80 m east of the Limestone Co. line, 17 Jun 1994, Holmes 7241 & Wivagg 

Centaurium pulchellum has long been known to occur in Louisiana and 
Mississippi (Small 1933). Unfortunately, we have not had access to any specimens 
from Mississippi, thus further comment is not possible. The species was first 
reported in Texas by Correll & Johnston (1972). Turner (1993), in a treatment of the 
genus for Texas, provided documentation of the species in Hardin and Brazona 
counties. Figure 1 depicts the distribution of the species in Louisiana and Texas. The 
plant is often misidentified as C. lexense. 

Specimens examined: Louisiana. Allen Parish: Paved road W of U.S. 165 ata 
pumping station three miles N of Kinder, Sec. 13, T6S, RSW, 3 Apr 1982, Thomas 
80607 & Allen (NLU); Sun Oil Co. Road, W of U.S. 165, 1.2 miles N of Kinder, 
Sec. 24, T6S, RSW, 25 May 1983, Thomas 83728 (NLU); Allen Parish Road 122, 
ca. 1/2 mile W of U.S. 165, ca. 2 miles N of Kinder, 20 Apr 1981, Allen 10663 
(NLU); Prairie strip S of Railroad and U.S, 90, ca. 1 mile E of Midland, 6 May 1989, 
Allen 16423 (NLU); U.S. 190 just W of the Calcasieu River W of Kinder, Sec. 30, 
T6S, RSW, 25 May 1983, Thomas 83735 (NLU); Beauregard Parish: Roadside 
along U.S. Hwy 171, Beauregard-Calcasieu Parish line, 3 May 1975, Adams 184] 
(LTU); Calcasieu Parish: Cleared area W of DeQuincy Middle School beside La. 12 
in W part of DeQuincy, 5 Jun 1992, Thomas 129558 (NLU); Railroad tracks and La. 
12 at the Railroad Museum in DeQuincy, Sec. 18, T7S, RLOW, 5 Jun 1992, Thomas 
129551 (NEU); La. 27 S at I-10E exit on south side of Sulphur, Sec. 3, T10S, 
R1OW, 22 Jun 1982, Thomas 81554 & Kessler (NLU); Roadside along U.S. Hwy 
171, Calcasieu-Beauregard Parish line, 3 May 1975, Adams 1840 (LTU); Ca. 2 5 
miles S of Gillis, 4 May 1968, Thieret 28829 (LAF); Cameron Parish: Roadbank at 
bridge on Sweet Lake camp road about 0.2 mile S of Cameron Parish, Road 445, 
Secs. 24 & 25, T12S, R8W, 12 May 1984, Thomas 88555 & Dutton 1788 (NLU); 
Jct. of La. 717 and Hwy 14 SE of Lake Arthur, Secs. 2 & 11, T12S, R3W, 19 Apr 
1984, Thomas 88020 et al. (NLU); Jct. of Cameron Parish Road 445 and Precht 
Road, 1.0 mile W of La. 384 & NW of Sweet Lake, Sec. 24, T12S, R8W, 12 May 
1984, Thomas 88558 & Dutton 1791 (NLU); Roadbank along a 0.3 miles section of 
Cameron Parish Road 421, just E of La. 384 and S of the Calcasieu Pansh line, NW 
of Grand Lake, Sec. 4, T12S, ROW, 13 Apr 1984, Dutton 1223 & Taylor 6700 
(NLU); La. 14 at Vermilion Parish line E of Lake Arthur, Sec. 2, T12S, R3W, 19 Apr 
1984, Thomas 87958 (NLU); Evangeline Pansh: La. 104, 0.3 mile E of Bayou 
Nezpique Bridge at Allen Parish, 23 May 1978, Cormier 726 (NLU); Jefferson Davis 
Parish: La. 97 just S of I-10, ca. 1 mile NE of Jennings, 5 Jun 1980, Vincent 3646 
(LSU); Lasalle Parish: Median of U.S. 165 at U.S. 84 in Tullos, Sec. 25, TION, 
RIE, 17 May 1980, Thomas 71298 & Thomas (NLU); Tullos, just NW of La. Hwy 
125 and about 1.2 miles SW of U.S. Hwy 84, 22 Apr 1988, Boyd 3000 (LTU); St. 
Tammany Pansh: I.H. 12 & La. 434 W of Hammond, 3 May 1989, Urbatsch 5451 
& Cox (LSU); Tangipahoa Parish: La. 22 at crossroads just W of Bedico Creek W of 
Bedico and E of Ponchatoula, Sec. 45, T7S, R9E, 17 May 1983, Thomas 83480 et al. 
(NLU); Vermilion Pansh: Orange Road off La. 82 S along Vermilion River, 7 miles 
S of Abbeville, Secs. 6 & 7, T12S, R3E, 30 May 1987 Slaughter 509 (NLU); La. 14 
at Cameron Parish line E of Lake Arthur, Sec. 35, T11S, R3W, 19 Apr 1984, 
Thomas 87972 et al. (NLU). Texas. Brazona Co.: Tx. Hwy 2004 at New Bayou S 
of Alvin, 5 Apr 1986, Brown 9888 (NLU); Galveston Co.: Roadside, Texas Hwy 
along beach five miles W of Galveston, 31 Mar 1972, Lowery 675 (LTU); Hardin 

28 PHYTOLOGIA January 1996 volume 8 1):23-29 

Co.: Hwy 96, Lumberton, 6 May 1995, Singhurst 3067 (BAYLU); 2.2 miles E of 
Saratoga along and S of Hwy 770, 30 Jun 1984, McLeod s.n. (ASTC); Harris Co.: 
Intersection of Pasadena Blvd. & Underwood Street, Deer Park, 18 May 1985, 
Brown 8770 (ASTC); Eisenhower Park S of the Dam at Lake Houston, 12 May 1984, 
Brown 7296 (NLU); Jasper Co.: 3.1 miles S of Farm Market road 105 from its Jct. 
with Farm Market 1131, 22 May 1988, Jones & Jones 1664 (TAES); 3.4 miles E of 
Buna along Farm Market Road 263, 14 May 1985, ig. leg. (ASTC); Liberty Co.: 
U.S. Hwy 90 between Dayton & bridge over Cedar Bayou, 23 May 1987, Brown 
11140 (NLU); Limestone Co.: Tx. Hwy 174, ca. 13 miles E of Groesbeck, near road 
to Lake Limestone, 16 May 1995, Holmes 7684 (BAYLU); Orange Co.: I-10 nght- 
of-way at Adams Bayou east of Orange, 14 May 1974, Thomas 38978 et al. (NLU); 
Rusk Co.: Ca. 3.5 miles N of the junct. of Tx. Hwy 322 & Tx. Hwy 259 on Hwy 
259, 20 Apnl 1988, Nixon 16617 (ASTC,BAYLU [photo]); Tyler Co.: U.S. Hwy 
190 at Steinhagen Lake, just W of the Jasper Co. line, 14 Apr 1995, Le Noir s.n. 

Further comment on Centaurium in Texas is not needed since Turmer (1993) 
provided an accurate account of the species in the state and, as mentioned, is not 
possible for Mississippi because of the lack of specimens. Several other species of 
Centaurium, however, have been reported in Louisiana. With clanfication of the 
status of C. pulchellum and C. muhlenbergii, itis now possible to comment on these 

Centaurium calycosum (Buckl.) Fern. was reported by MacRoberts (1987) as 
occurring in DeSoto Parish, based upon Gilmore 1833 (LTU). Tumer (1993) gives 
the distnbution of C. calycosum as being pnmanily in the western portions of the 
Edwards Plateau of Texas, and several adjacent areas, such as México. It is reported 
by Cronquist ef al. (1983) as occurmng in New Mexico, Anzona, Utah, efc. Upon 
examination, Gilmore 1833 proved to be C. muhlenbergti collected near Coushatta in 
Red River Pansh. 

MacRoberts (1987) also reported Centaurium erythraea Raf. from Caddo Parish, 
citing MacRoberts 550, 923, 1201, & 2688 (all LSUS). This species is an European 
native that has become naturalized from northern coastal California to Washington 
(Hickman 1993). The plant is similar to C. muhlenbergii in appearance but is a 
biennial with a conspicuous basal rosette and has corolla lobes 5-7 mm long. 
Examination of clear photocopies of these specimens showed they lacked basal 
rosettes and appeared to be annuals. They are thus referable to C. muhlenbergii. 

Centaurium texense (Griseb.) Fern. was reported from Rapides and Calcasieu 
parishes by Thieret (1968). The distnbution of this species includes the eastern edge 
of the Balcones Escarpment of Texas, eastern Oklahoma, northwestern Arkansas, and 
southwestern Missoun. The plant is limited to dry, limestone derived soils and eroded 
limestone slopes, glades, and roadcuts, all non-existent in Louisiana. The specimens 
cited by Thieret (1968), Thieret 26682 and 28829 (both LAF) proved to be C. 
muhlenbergii and C. pulchellum respectively. 

Holmes & Wivagg: Centaurium in Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas 29 

We wish to thank the curators of the herbana for the use of the specimens that 
made this study possible. Special appreciation is extended to R. Dale Thomas of NLU 
for his comments concerning the two species discussed and to Charles M. Allen, also 
of NLU, for providing photocopies of certain specimens and for review of the 
manuscript. Garry Landry (LAF), Sidney McDaniel (IBE), Jason Singhurst (ASTC), 
and Debra Waters (LSU) provided photocopies of various specimens essential for this 


Correll, D.S. & M.C. Johnston. 1970. Manual of the Vascular Plants of Texas. 
Texas Research Foundation, Renner, Texas. 

Correll, D.S. & M.C. Johnston. 1972. Manual of the vascular plants of Texas: I. 
additions and corrections. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 88:490-496. 

Cronquist, A., A.H. Holmgren, N.H. Holmgren, J.L. Reveal, & P.K. Holmgren. 
1983. Intermountain Flora. Vascular Plants of the Intermountain West, U.S.A. 
-4. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 

Fernald, M.L. 1950. Gray’s Manual of Botany, 8th ed. Amencan Book Company, 
New York, New York. 

Hickman, J.C. (ed.). 1993. The Jepson Manual, Higher Plants of California. 
University of California Press, Berkeley, California 

MacRoberts, D.T. 1987. A documented checklist and atlas of the vascular flora of 
Louisiana: Pt. 3: Dicotyledoneae, Fagaceae to Zygophyllaceae. Louisiana State 
University, Shreveport, Louisiana. 

Small, J.K. 1933. Manual of the Southeastern Flora. University of North Carolina 
Press, Chapel Hill, North Carolina. 

Thieret, J.W. 1968. Additions to the vascular flora of Louisiana. Proc. Louisiana 
Acad. Sci. 31:91-97. 

Turner, B.L. 1993. The Texas species of Centaurium (Gentianaceae). Phytologia 

Phytologia (January 1996) 80(1):30-34. 


Mike Borowski and Walter C. Holmes 
Department of Biology, Baylor University, Waco, Texas 76798-7388 U.S.A. 
Jason Singhurst 

Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, Route 1, Box 87, Mexia, Texas 76667 


Phyllostachys aurea is shown to be widely distributed in the eastern part of 

KEY WORDS: Gramineae, Phyllostachys, Texas 

Phyllostachys aurea Riv., commonly called yellow bamboo, is a native of China 
that was introduced into the southern United States pnor to 1870 (Rehder 1986) as an 
ornamental, barrier planting, or for soil stabilization and erosion control. The plant is 
a vigorous colonizer and readily escapes containment or is commonly abandoned. The 
size of some colonies, sometimes over 100 m in length, indicates that the species, once 
established, can persist for extended periods of time. The species may grow to 6 m 
tall and forms dense stands, often to the exclusion of other vegetation. The genus 
Phyllostachys is characterized by the culms being flattened on one side above each 
node, a trait useful in distinguishing it from the native Arundinaria gigantea (Walt.) 
Muhl. Additional traits of Phyllostachys aurea are its yellow stems, leaf sheathes 
generally without spots but with two tufts of bristles at the apices, and presence of 2-3 
linear leaves 5-12 cm long and 1-2 cm wide at the up of each branch. Additional 
information can be found in Allen (1992). 

The plant is included as part of the naturalized flora of Louisiana by Allen (1992) 
and by Thomas & Allen (1993). It is also present in Mississippi (pers. comm. with 
Sidney McDaniel of IBE). Gould (1975) did not include Phyllostachys in his 
treatment of the grasses of Texas nor was it included in the latest checklist of the 


Figure 1. Distribution of Phyllostachys aurea in Texas. 

32 PE yea OulsOiG eA January 1996 volume 80 1):30-34 

vascular plants of the state (Hatch et al. 1990). Its widespread occurrence in Texas 
(Figure 1), spread to areas where it seems not to have been intentionally planted, and 
persistence, warrants its inclusion as part of the naturalized flora of Texas. 

Jenzan (1976) gives the intermast period of Phyllostachys aurea as 28-29 (2x 14- 
15) years, a figure based on observations of plants introduced to [mainland] Europe 
and England. He mentions that the ume period is more fixed in the center of the 
natural distribution of a species and synchrony may be lost under cultivation or if the 
plants are feral, thus the Texas plants may not follow this schedule. He suggests the 
long interval between flowering evolved to escape seed predation. At this time, no 
fertile materials are known from Texas. 

Representative specimens: Anderson Co.: Ca. 0.9 mi E of jct. of U.S. Hwy 8&4 
and Loop 256 on Hwy 84, Palestine, 20 Feb 1996, Singhurst 4776 (BAYLU). 
Bastrop Co.: N. side Tx. Hwy 21, ca. 3.6 mi NE of jet. of Tx. Hwy 21 and FM 535, 
3 Dec 1995, Singhurst 3621 (BAYLU). Bell Co.: Royal St., ca. 200 m E of 
Stagecoach Road, Salado, 9 Jul 1995, Holmes 7805 (BAYLU). Bosque Co.: Walnut 
Springs, Tx. Hwy 144, ca. 150 m N of FR 927, 27 Oct 1995, Holmes 7939 
(BAYLU). Bowie Co.: Jct. of Hwy 67 and Sulfur River, ca. 0.8 mi. N on Hwy 67, 
6 Mar 1996, Singhurst 4809 (BAYLU). Bumet Co.: FM 2147, 1/2 mi. W of U.S. 
Hwy 281, 28 Jan 1996, Wivagg s.n. (BAYLU). Callahan Co.: I-20, 1.7 mi. E jet. 
with FM 604, Clyde, 10 Feb 1996, Singhurst 4775 (BAYLU). Cass Co.: Ca. 1.15 
mi. S of jct. of FM 1154 & FM 96 on FM 96, 6 Mar 1996, Singhurst 4810 
(BAYLU). Cherokee Co.: Ca. 2.3 mi. Eof Alto at jct. of U.S. Hwy 69 and Tx. 
Hwy 21 on Hwy 21, 29 Jan 1996, Singhurst 4764 (BAYLU). Collin Co.: Ca. 0.3 
mi. S of jct. of Park Place Dr. and Jupitor Rd., Allen, 30 Mar 1996, Singhurst 4817 
(BAYLU). Dallas Co.: [exact location not given] cultivated in calcareous clay, 
forming a dense thicket 6 m tall, evergreen, specimen consists of 2 branches from root 
sprouts 0.6 m tall, outside of fence, 20 Dec 1967, Shinners 32022 (BRIT). Erath 
Co.: Dublin, Patrick St. Church, U.S. Hwy 67 ca. 0.5 mi. N of Tx. Hwy 6, 29 Mar 
1996, Stevens 196 (BAYLU). Harns Co.: I-45 South at jct. of Hardy Toll Road, 1/2 
mi. S of Rayford Road, 27 Dec 1995, Borowski s.n. (BAYLU). Harnson Co.: Ca. 
5.6 mi. ENE of jct. of Hwy 43 and Hwy 59 at Marshall, 14 May 1996, Singhurst 
4838 (BAYLU). Hays Co.: Ca. 0.5 mi. W of Jct. of 1-35 and FM 150, ca. 0.1 mi. N 
of FM 150, Kyle, 3 Dec 1995, Singhurst 3627 (BAYLU); Jct. of I-35 N service road 
and County Road 105, Buda, 22 Oct 1995, Borowski 185 (BAYLU). Henderson 
Co.: S side Tx. Hwy 175, ca. 5 mi. WNW of jct. Tx. 175 and Loop 317, Athens, 26 
Nov 1995, Singhurst 3628 (BAYLU); Tx. Hwy 2329 near arm of Cedar Creek 
Reservoir, 3-4 mi. S of Tx. Hwy 316, 24 Sep 1995, Borowski 179 (BAYLU). 
Houston Co.: Ca. 0.3 miles E of jct. of Tx. Hwy 21 and FM 2967 on Tx. Hwy 21, 3 
Dec 1995, Singhurst 3629(BAYLU). Jasper Co.: Ca. 4.8 mi. ENE of ject. of Hwy 
96 and FM 1007 at Browndell, Rocky Reserve, The Nature Conservancy of Texas, 15 
Apr 1996, Singhurst 4833 (BAYLU). Kaufman Co.: Ca. 0.4 mi. E of jet. of old 
Hwy 174 and FM 274 in Kemp, 15 Mar 1996, Singhurst 4816 (BAYLU). Lee Co.: 
Ca. 2.0 mi. NE of jct. of FM 619 and FM 695 on FM 695, 31 Jan 1995, Singhurst 
4765 (BAYLU). Leon Co.: 0.75 mile N of Centerville on W service road of I-45, 26 
May 1995, Holmes 7697 (BAYLU). Limestone Co.: Tx. Hwy 14 between 
Groesbeck and Mexia, 0.2 mi. S of Park Road 28 (entrance to Ft. Parker State Park), 
16 Sep 1995, Holmes 7886, Do, & Morgan (BAYLU). Madison Co.: Ca. 3.7 mi. W 
of jet. of Tx. Hwy 2] and FM 1428 on S side of Tx. Hwy 21, 3 Dec 1995, Singhurst 

Borowski, et al.: Phyllostachys aurea in Texas 33 

3631 (BAYLU). Manon Co.: Ca. 1.8 mi S of jct. of Hwy 43 and Hwy 49 at 
Smithland, 14 May 1996, Singhurst 4837 (BAYLU). McLennan Co.: Slopes and 
bluffs above the Brazos River, Cameron Park, Waco, 16 Feb 1995, Holmes 7593 
(BAYLU). Morris Co.: Dangerfield State Park, ca. 1.7 mi. SSE of Jct. of park road 
and Hwy 49, 7 Mar 1996, Singhurst 4813 (BAYLU). Nacogdoches Co.: 4 mi. E of 
jet. of Tx. Hwy 21 and FM 225 on Tx. Hwy 21, 3 Dec 1995, Singhurst 3632 
(BAYLU). Newton Co.: Ca. 1.9 mi. N of jct. of Hwy 87 and R255 at Mayflower 
Community, 15 Apr 1996, Singhurst 4836 (BAYLU). Palo Pinto Co.: Ca. 0.9 mi N 
of jct. of Hwy 180 and Hwy 281 on Hwy 281, 22 Dec 1995, Singhurst 3989 
(BAYLU). Parker Co.: Ca. 1 mi. W of jct. of Hwy 180 and South Bowie St. on 
Hwy 180, Weatherford, 23 Dec 1995, Singhurst 3990 (BAYLU). Sabine Co.: Ca. 
0.7 mi. W of Jct. of Hwy 87 and FM 2426 on FM 2426, 15 Apr 1996, Singhurst 
4835 (BAYLU). Shelby Co.: Ca. 2.3 mi. N of jct. of Hwy 7 and county line across 
from White Rock Cemetery, 17 Mar 1996, Singhurst 4815 (BAYLU). Smith Co.: 
Management and Research Station, Tx. Parks & Wildlife Dept., Tyler; ca. 1.3 mi. S 
of jct. of Hwy 64 & FM 848, 15 Mar 1996, Singhurst 4814 (BAYLU). Tarrant Co.: 
Jct. of University Drive and Colonial, Fort Worth, 14 Oct 1995, Borowski 183 
(BAYLU); Embankment of Tx. Hwy 121 and Tx. Hwy 329 near Bedford, 14 Oct 
1995, Borowski 184 (BAYLU). Travis Co.: Road leading to Nature Center, Zilker 
Park, Austin, 7 Oct 1995, Borowski 182 (BAYLU); Tx. Hwy 71, 2 mi. N of jet. with 
Tx. Hwy 2244, 7 Oct 1995, Borowski 180(BAYLU). Tyler Co.: Ca. 2.4 mi. S. of 
Jct. of FM 1943 and Hwy 69 at Warten, ca. 0.5 mi. ENE on road along N side of 
John H. Kirby Forest, 15 Apr 1996, Singhurst 4834 (BAYLU). Upshur Co.: Ca. 
2.3 mi. S of Jct. of Hwy 259 & FM 2706, S of Lonestar on Hwy 59, 5 Mar 1996, 
Singhurst 4808 (BAYLU). Walker Co.: Huntsville, Old Madisonville Hwy at Smith 
Hill, 27 Jan 1996, Stevens 171 (BAYLU). Williamson Co.: County Road 481 across 
from Adina Church Road, 10 Feb 1996, Stevens 187, Gooch, & Holmes (BAYLU). 
Wilson Co.: FR 1107, 200 m N of Jct. with U.S. Hwy 87, Pandora, 9 Feb 1996, 
Stevens 173, Gooch, & Holmes (BAYLU). Wood (o.: County Road 1600, Alba, 
24 Sep 1995, Borowski 178 (BAYLU). 


We wish to thank Charles M. Allen of NLU for reviewing the manuscript, Sidney 
McDaniel of IBE for reviewing the manuscnpt and his comments on the distribution of 
the species in Mississippi, the curator and staff of BRIT for access to specimens, and 
Dan Wivagg, Robin Gooch, and Jeff Stevens for assistance in searching for 
Phyllostachys colonies. Special recognition is extended to the Endangered Resources 
Branch and Resource Program of the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department for access 
to public lands under their jurisdiction. 


Allen, C.M. 1992. Grasses of Louisiana, 2nd. ed. Cajun Praine Habitat 
Preservation Society, Eunice, Louisiana. 

34 PHY T.OLOGTA January 1996 volume 80( 1):30-34 

Gould, F.W. 1975. The Grasses of Texas. Texas A. & M. University Press, 
College Station, Texas. 

Hatch, S.L., K.N. Gandhi, & L.E. Brown. 1990. Checklist of the Vascular Plants 
of Texas. The Texas Agr. Exp. Sta., College Station, Texas. 

Jenzan, H.J. 1976. Why bamboos wait so long to flower. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 
1976. 7:347-391. 

Rehder, A. 1986. Manual of Cultivated Trees and Shrubs Hardy in North America, 
2nd ed. Dioscondes Press, Portland, Oregon. 

Thomas, R.D. & C. M. Allen. 1993. Atlas of the vascular flora of Louisiana, Vol. 1: 
ferns & fern allies, conifers, & monocotyledons. Natural Hentage Program, 
Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries, Baton Rouge, Louisiana. 

Phytologia (January 1996) 80(1):35-39 


Joseph K. Wipff 

Herbarium (BRCH), Botanical Research Center, P.O. Box 6717, Bryan, Texas 
77805-6717 U.S.A. 


The following nomenclatural combinations in the Poaceae are proposed: 
Schizachyrium spadiceum (J. Swallen) comb. nov.; and 
Schizachyrium scoparium (A. Michaux) G. Nash var. stoloniferum (G. 
Nash) comb. et stat. nov. 

KEY WORDS:  Schizachyrium, Schizachyrium scoparium, Schizachyrium 
scoparium var. Sstoloniferum, Schizachyrium spadiceum, Schizachyrium 
stoloniferum, nomenclature, Poaceae 

Schizachyrium spadiceum (J. Swallen) J. Wipff, comb. nov. BASIONYM: 
Andropogon spadiceus J. Swallen, Proceedings of the Biological Society of 
Washington 56:82 (1943). TYPE: MEXICO. Coahuila: Cafion de Madera, 
western side of Sierra de los Guajes, about 4 km east of Rancho Buena Vista, 7 
Sept 1941, Robert M. Stewart 1504 (HOLOTYPE: US, accession #154691). 

Schizachyrium spadiceum, restncted to Coahuila, México and Brewster County, 
Texas, is the first reported species of Schizachyrium with a panicle of paired branches. 
All of the other reported species of Schizachyrium have spicate racemes. This should 
not be surprising since there are species of Andropogon that have spicate racemes 
(e.g., A. textilis A. Rendle, A. fastigiatus O. Swartz, and A. gracilis K. Sprengel), 
and there are also species that may have either spicate racemes or panicles of paired 
branches (e.g., A. urbanianus A. Hitchcock, A. reedii A. Hitchcock & E. Ekman, and 
A. kelleri E. Hackel). It appears that too much significance has been placed on the 
condition of spicate racemes vs. panicles of primary branches; more reliable characters 
can be found in the lower glume of the sessile spikelet, the internodes of the central 
axis, and the pedicels (Clayton 1964). Clayton (1964) pointed out that the significance 
attached to spicate racemes probably arose from the value of this character in 
segregating Schizachyrium Nees von Esenbeck. Excluding the panicles of paired 
branches, S. spadiceum possesses all of the below mentioned genenc characters that 


36 PHY LOL Oars January 1996 volume 80(1):35-39 

are used to delimit Schizachyrium from Andropogon and justify its placement into 

Schizachyrium is most closely related to Andropogon sect. Leptopogon (Clayton 
1964; Clayton & Renvoize 1986). Clayton (1964) and Clayton & Renvoize (1986) 
provided the following characters to delimit Schizachyrium and Andropogon sect. 
Leptopogon, with the inflorescence character being amended to accommodate 
Schizachyrium spadiceum. 

Schizachyrium. Inflorescence a spicate raceme or panicle of paired branches (1.e., 
S. spadiceum), first glume of sessile spikelet convex on the back with several 
intercarinal veins; internodes and pedicels clavate to linear (but then often widening at 
the tip); the apex of the internode usually conspicuously cup-shaped with a fimbnate 
rim; upper lemma bilobed or deeply cleft almost to the base. 

Andropogon sect. Leptopogon: Inflorescence a panicle of 2-several digitate 
branches or a spicate raceme (e.g., A. gracilis K. Sprengel); first glume concave; 
intercarinal area membranous, hyaline or translucent, and veinless between the keels, 
or rarely with 1-2 veins in the translucent or hyaline, concave, intercarinal area [e.g., 
A. tenarius A. Michaux (vanable, veins present or absent)]; internodes and pedicels 
linear to filiform; the apex of the internode shallowly cup-shaped; upper lemma bifid 
up to 1/4 of its length, very rarely more, but never beyond the middle. 

The following descnption of Schizachyrium spadiceum has been expanded from 
Swallen (1943). 

Plants perennial, 60-95 cm tall, cespitose, without rhizomes or stolons, culm 
erect, terete, glabrous. Leaves glaucous. Sheaths compressed, keeled, scaberulous 
(glabrous), occasionally with a few scattered tichomes; the lower sheaths longer than 
the internodes and the upper shorter than the internodes. Ligule 1.0-1.5 mm long, a 
membrane, truncate, erose-ciliate. Blade 10-25 cm long, 2.0-2.5 mm wide, flat or 
folded, scaberulous, young blades ciliate in lower portion with tnchomes 4-7 mm 
long, these often being lost in age. Inflorescence a panicle of paired branches, 
branches 3.5-6.0 cm long, 7-10 nodes; inflorescence exserted or partially enclosed in 
sheath; sheath (subtending inflorescence) 5.3-8.6 cm long; blade 0.5-39.5 mm long; 
peduncle 4.6-9.0 cm long. Internode (of inflorescence branch) 4.0-6.3 mm long; 
linear becoming wider, slightly swollen, at the apex; apex conspicuously cup-shaped 
with a fimbnate mm; lower 1/3-1/2 of internode and pedicel ciliate, but upper portion, 
abaxially, densely white villous with tnchomes 4-7 mm long; internodes straight, 
without a membranous, hyaline or translucent, median groove. Sessile spikelet 7-8 
mm long, golden to chestnut brown and the apex usually green; callus of white 
trichomes to 2 mm long. First glume 7-8 mm long; 7-11 veins, (4-)5-7 equidistant 
intercarinal veins, green; coriaceous, dorsally compressed, two-keeled, back of glume 
convex, glabrous, smooth, scaberulous on keels and veins in the upper portion, 
margins variously ciliolate. Second glume 6.5-7.0 mm long, 3-veined (lateral veins 
obscure, sometimes only faintly visible in the upper 1/2); subconaceous, laterally 
compressed, enclosing florets; glabrous except for ciliolate margins and scaberulous 
mid-vein at apex. First lemma 4.8-5.8 mm long, veinless, hyaline membrane; 
glabrous, margins ciliolate; awnless; neuter. Second lemma 4.1-5.0 mm long, 3- 
veined; veined portion of lemma, in the center, chartaceous and the rest of the lemma a 
hyaline membrane, margins variously ciliolate; apex cleft 1/3-1/2 of lemma, teeth 1.7- 

Wipff: New combinations in Schizachyrium a7 

2.3 mm long, awned between cleft; awn 14.2-17.2 mm long, once geniculate, ughtly 
twisted below the bend, lower segment 5-6 mm long, terminal segment straight, 8.7- 
11.2 mm long. Second palea 1.7-2.0 mm long, veinless; hyaline membrane, 
margins ciliolate. Anther 1.9-2.3 mm long; 3 stamens. Caryopsis 2.6-3.2 mm 
long, 0.70-0.75 mm wide; dark reddish purple. Pedicelled spikelet 0.8-4.0 mm 
long, neuter, greatly reduced, with only a first glume developed, awnless; pedicel 5- 
6 mm long; basal callus of trichomes to 2 mm long; lower 1/3-1/2 (2/3) ciliate, upper 
portion, abaxially, densely white villous with tichomes 4-7 mm long; without a 
membranous, hyaline or translucent, median groove. Chromosome number 

Johnston (1981) commented that in the field Schizachyrium spadiceum has a 
strong superficial resemblance to Schizachyrium scoparium (A. Michaux) G. Nash. 

Schizachyrium scoparium (A. Michaux) G. Nash var. stoloniferum (G. Nash) 
J. Wipff, comb. et stat. nov. BASIONYM: Schizachyrium stoloniferum G. Nash 
in J.K. Small, Flora of the Southeastern U.S. 59, 1326 (1903). Andropogon 
stolonifer (G. Nash) A. Hitchcock, Amencan Journal of Botany 2:299 (1915). 
Schizachyrium stoloniferum G. Nash var. stoloniferum [autonym created by 
Schizachyrium stoloniferum G. Nash var. wolfei H. DeSelm, Sida 6(2):114-115 
(1975)]. TYPE: UNITED STATES. Flonda: Chapman (HOLOTYPE: NY). 
Schizachyrium stoloniferum G. Nash var. wolfei H. DeSelm, Sida 6(2):114-115 

(1975). TYPE: UNITED STATES. Flonda: Osceola Co.; Four miles 
northwest of Loughman, 14 October 1960, Ray, Lakela, & Patman 10494 

Chase (1951) reported that Schizachyrium stoloniferum resembled S. scoparium 
and from examining her descnptions of the two taxa the only significant difference 
between the two taxa was the presence of creeping scaly rhizomes in S. stoloniferum. 
In a systematic study of the S. scoparium complex, Bruner (1987) concluded that S. 
stoloniferum was conspecific with S. scoparium and should be recognized at the 
vanetal level. However, he also considered Andropogon scoparius A. Michaux var. 
polycladus F. Lamson-Scnibner & C. Ball as conspecific with S. stoloniferum and 
proposed a new combination: S. scoparium var. polycladus (F. Lamson-Scnbner & 
C. Ball) J. Bruner, ined. and treated S. stoloniferum as a synonym. However, this 
new combination was validly published by Reed (1987), but it was probably in the 
sense of Fernald (1950) and not including S. stoloniferum, because the combinations 
in Reed (1987) were made in preparation for the Flora of Central Eastern United States 
(Maryland, Delaware, Virginia, and West Virginia) and S. stoloniferum is restricted to 
Flonda, and southern Georgia and Alabama. 

Bruner (1987) treated, without any specific explanation, Andropogon scoparius 
var. polycladus as conspecific with Schizachyrium stoloniferum, whereas Nash 
(1912), Hitchcock (1935), Chase (1951), and Gandhi (1989) treated var. polycladus 
as a synonym of Schizachyrium (Andropogon) scoparium (= Schizachyrium 
Scoparium var. scoparium). Nash (1912), Hitchcock (1935), Fernald (1950), Chase 
(1951), and Gandhi (1989) charactenzed var. polycladus as non-rhizomatous, 
whereas Bruner (1987) considered it rhizomatous. After examining photographs of 
the type specimens of var. polycladus and S. stoloniferum | agree with Gandhi (1989) 
that the type specimen of var. polycladus does not possess rhizomes, whereas the type 

38 PHY TOLOGIA January 1996 volume 80( 1):35-39 

of S. stoloniferum does have rhizomes. Lamson-Scnbner & Ball (1901) in their 
original description of var. polycladus never mention this taxon as having rhizomes. 
The following is the onginal description by Lamson-Scnbner & Ball (1901) for var. 
polycladus: “Stout, 9 to 12 dm. high, glabrous, somewhat glaucous; panicles large, 
much branched”. 

Another difference between Bruner (1987), and Lamson-Scnibner & Ball (1901), 
Nash (1912), Hitchcock (1935), Fernald (1950), Chase (1951), and Gandhi (1989), 
is in the reported distnbutions of these taxa. Bruner (1987) commented that 
Schizachyrium stoloniferum is “. . . ecologically restricted to specific habitats in the 
southeastern United States and spatially isolated from the rest of S. scoparium,.. .”. 
Bruner reports the distribution of S$. stoloniferum (including var. polycladus) as 
occurring throughout Florida, and southern Georgia and Alabama, on the sandy soils 
of woodland openings and roadsides. However, he does not report S. scoparium var. 
scoparium as occurring in Florida. Therefore, if S. scoparium var. scoparium is not 
recognized as occurring in Florida, and since the type for var. polycladus was 
collected in Manatee County, Florida, it is understandable why Bruner treated this 
taxon as conspecific with S. stoloniferum. Nash (1912), Hitchcock (1935), Fernald 
(1950), Chase (1951), and Gandhi (1989) all report S. scoparium (= var. scoparium) 
as occurring in Florida. Bruner (1987) not only reports different distnbutions for S. 
scoparium var. scoparium, but also greatly restricts the distnbution of var. polycladus 
from what has been reported. 

Femald (1950), recognizing var. polycladus as a distinct vanety of Andropogon 
Scoparius, reported its distnbution as occurring in dry woods from Texas to Flonda 
and México, north to New Jersey through eastern Missouri and Pennsylvania. 
Lamson-Scribner & Ball (1901) give the following additional distributions for var. 
polycladus, “Tracy’s No. 5330, from Biloxi, Mississippi, and a plant collected by 
John K. Small on the slopes and summit of Stone Mountain, Georgia, September 6- 
12, 1894, belong here.” Stone Mountain is a granite dome located in northwestem 
Georgia, east of Atlanta. 

No data were found supporting the treatment of Andropogon scoparius var. 
polycladus and Schizachyrium stoloniferum as conspecific (Bruner 1987), therefore | 
am treating var. polycladus as a synonym of S. scoparium var. scoparium as did Nash 
(1912), Hitchcock (1935), Chase (1951), and Gandhi (1989). However, I do not 
agree with Gandhi (1989) in the placement of S. stoloniferum as a synonym of S. 
scoparium var. littorale (G. Nash) F. Gould. 

Schizachyrium scoparium var. stoloniferum and S. scoparium var. littorale occupy 
different habitats and have different growth habits. Schizachyrium scoparium var. 
stoloniferum is found in sandy woodlands and roadsides, whereas S. scoparium var. 
litorale grows on the shifting, coastal sands. Schizachyrium scoparium var. 
stoloniferum is strongly rhizomatous, whereas, S. scoparium var. littorale, as Bruner 
(1987) also reported, is not rhizomatous. Schizachyrium scoparium var. littorale only 
appears rhizomatous due to the continual bunal of the culms and the subsequent decay 
of the sheath and blades from the culms. This results in the buried culms superficially 
resembling rhizomes. It is my opinion that S. scoparium var. littorale and S. 
scoparium var. stoloniferum represent two different and recognizable taxa. 

Wipff: New combinations in Schizachyrium 39 


I am grateful to W. E. Fox, III (TAES), Stephan L. Hatch (TAES), and 
Stanley D. Jones (BRCH) for reviewing this manuscript. 


Bruner, J.L. 1987. Systematics of the Schizachyrium scoparium (Poaceae) complex 
in North America. Ph.D. dissertation. Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. 
Chase, A. 1951. A revision of A. S. Hitchcock’s, Manual of the Grasses of the 
United States, 2nd ed. U.S.D.A. Miscellaneous Publication 200. U.S. 

Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 

Clayton, W.D. 1964. Studies in the Gramineae V. New species of Andropogon. 

Clayton, W.D. & S.A. Renvoize. 1986. Genera Graminum: Grasses of the World. 
Kew Bulletin, Additional Series 13. Her Majesty’s Statronery Office, London, 
United Kingdom. 

Fernald, M.L. 1950. Gray’s Manual of Botany. Amencan Book Company, New 
York, New York. 

Gandhi, K.N. 1989. A biosystematic study of the Schizachyrium scoparium 
complex. Ph.D. dissertation. Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas. 
Hitchcock, A.S. 1935. Manual of the Grasses of the United States, \st ed. 
U.S.D.A. Miscellaneous Publication 200. U.S. Government Printing Office, 

Washington, D.C. 

Johnston, M.C. 1981. Andropogon spadiceus (Poaceae), A Coahuilian species now 
known from Texas. The Southwestem Naturalist 25(4):557. 

Lamson-Scribner, F. & C. R. Ball. 1901. Miscellaneous notes and descnptions of 
new species. U.S.D.A. Division of Agrostology Bulletin 24:40-41. 

Reed, C.L. 1987. New combinations required for the Flora of Central Eastern United 
States. Phytologia 63:410-412. 

Swallen, J.R. 1943. Nine new grasses from Mexico. Proceedings of the Biological 
Society of Washington 56:77-84. 

Phytologia (January 1996) 80(1):40-47. 


A. Galan de Mera & J.A. Vicente Orellana 

Laboratorio de Botanica, Universidad San Pablo-CEU, Apartado 67, E-28660 
Boadiila del Monte, Madnd, ESPANA 


On a phytosociological study of the Southern Peruvian Andes, we descnbe 
the cactus communities from the western slopes of the Andes. As a result, we 
propose the following novelties: Opuntietea sphaericae classis nova, 
Oreocereo leucotrichi-Neoraimondietalia arequipensis ordo novo, 
Corryocaction brevistyli allianza nova, Corryocacto  aurei- 
Browningietum _candelaris_ associatio nova, and Oreocereo 
tacnaensis-Corryocactetum brevistyli associatio nova. 

KEY WORDS: Cactaceae, phytosociology, Peri 


En un estudio fitosocioldgico de los Andes del sur Peruanos, descnbimos 
las communidades de cactus de las laderas occidentales Andinas. Como 
resultado se proponen las siguentes novedades: Opuntietea sphaericae 
classis nova, Oreocereo leucotrichi-Neoraimondietalia arequipensis 
ordo novo, Corryocaction brevistyli allianza nova, Corryocacto aurei- 
Browningietum candelaris  associatio nova, and Oreocereo 
tacnaensis-Corryocactetum brevistyli associatio nova. 

PALABRAS CLAVE: Cactaceae, fitosocioldgica, Peri 


E] Pert es uno de los paises de Aménca con mayor diversidad de cactdceas. Sus 
representantes se encuentran distnbuidos por todo el pais aunque la mayor 


Galan de Mera & Vicente-Orellana: Comunidades con Corryocactus 4] 

concentraciOn aparece en las vertientes andas occidentales de los Andes, entre 1000 y 
3000 m de altitud [T= 15-20°C, P= 30-70 mm] (Rauh 1979). 

Al parecer, en la costa y Andes del norte del Peru, se encuentran en mayor 
proporcién los elementos mds antiguos de la vegetacion peruana (Solbng 1976)- 
Acacia, Bulnesia, Loxopterygium, Prosopis (. . .)- que ademas, muchos de ellos, son 
los que aparecen en la sabana chaquefa (al S de la Cuenca Amaz6nica), como por 
ejemplo, Cercidium praecox, Geoffroea decorticans, Parkinsonia aculeata, y Prosopis 
pallida (Cardenas 1945; Bernardi 1984). La presencia de algunas de estas plantas en 
los valles desérticos e interandinos del centro y sur del Peni (Fortaleza, Ica, Junin, 
Nazca, y Tacna) demuestra la existencia de una vegetacidn de tipo chaqueno en los 
primeros periodos de la formacién de los Andes. El levantamiento de la cordillera y la 
intensificacidn de la corriente de Humboldt durante el Pleistoceno, ongin6 una gran 
zona anda con elevada cantidad de endemismos al W de los Andes (Miller 1985: 
Galan de Mera et al. 1995). En la Tabla 1 mostramos el alto numero de endemismos 
inventariados en las laderas 4ndas occidentales del Peri. Ademds, podemos observar 
cémo los grupos de plantas B y C son caracteristicos de las formaciones vegetales del 
norte (La Libertad, Lambayeque, Piura, y Tumbes), mientras que otras sabaneras 
como Cercidium praecox (A) se encuentran como reliquias en termtonos del centro del 
Peru (Ica). También en la Tabla 1 nos encontramos con un gran paquete de cactaceas 
endémicas que delatan asociaciones fitosocioldgicas claramente definidas. 


Aunque de forma fisionémica, algunos autores han descnto ya las comunidades 
donde intervienen Corryocactus brevistylus y otros cactus mds conocidos, como 
Browningia candelaris (Weberbauer 1912, 1945; Rauh 1958, 1979; Ferreyra 1987). 
Sin embargo, nosotros seguiremos el método fitosociolégico de Braun-Blanquet 
(1964) ya que permite profundizar en el andlisis y clasificacién de los ecosistemas y 
ademas establecer una comparaci6n ecoldgica, dindmica y geogrdfica con otras 
estructuras disyuntas (Moravec 1992). 


I. Clase Opuntietea sphaericae classis nova 
Typus: Oreocereo leucotrichi-Neoraimondietalia arequipensis ordo 

Clase que reune a las formaciones de cactdéceas de Aménca del Sur. Elegimos 
como caracterisucas de la clase a las dos especies que tienen una distnbuci6n mas 
amplia. Opuntia stricta, desde el S de Estados Unidos a Uruguay, y Opuntia 
sphaerica, desde Peri a Argentina (Bntton & Rose 1963; Hunt 1992). 

42 Pray 1 OLOGTA January 1996 volume 80( 1):40-47 

Tabla 1.- Inventarios constituidos por listas de especies pertenecientes a diferentes 
puntos de las laderas andinas occidentales del Peru. 

N. de inventano 

Cactdceas endémicas 
Cleistocactus acanthurus 
Haageocereus multangularis 
Haageocereus versicolor 
Armatocereus procerus 
Oreocereus piscoensis 
Corryocactus aureus 
Haageocereus platinospinus 
Oreocereus tacnaensis 
Trichocereus tacnaensis 
Browningia icaensis 
Corryocactus matucanensis 
Corryocactus melaleucus 
Espostoa melanostele 
Haageocereus albispinus 
Haageocereus limensis 
Mila caespitosa 

Mila nealeana 
Weberbauerocereus churinensis 
Haageocereus icosagonoides 
Haageocereus pacalaensis 
Browningia riosaniensis 
Pilosocereus tuberculosus 
Cleistocactus serpens 
Espostoa blossfeldiorum 

Cactdceas de amplia distnbucién 
Opuntia sphaerica 
Neoraimondia arequipensis 
Melocactus peruvianus 
Opuntia quitensis 

Echinopsis pachanoi 

Opuntia pubescens 

Espostoa lanata 

Browningia candelaris 
Corryocactus brevistylus 
Oreocereus hempelianus 
Oreocereus leucotrichus 
Armatocereus matucanensis 
Armatocereus cartwrightianus 
Opuntia cylindrica 



See ee NWW ANA 

Galdn de Mera & Vicente-Orellana: Comunidades con Corryocactus 

Tabla 1 (cont.). 
N. de inventano 

_Arbustos y arboles endémicos 
Jatropha macrantha 

Cnidoscolus basiacanthus 
Orthopterygium huaucui 
Carica candicans 

Furcraea occidentalis 
Caesalpinia spinosa 
Abutilon nigripunctulatum 
Heliotropium adenogynum 
Syncretocarpus sericeus 

Arboles _y arbustos_de__amplia 

Cercidium praecox 
Galvesia fruticosa 
Colletia spinosissima 

Kageneckia lanceolata 
Trixis cacalioides 

Cordia macrocephala 
Prosopis pallida 
Capparis scabrida 
Capparis avicennifolia 
Capparis crotonoides 
Acacia macracantha 
Cordia lutea 

Grabowskia boerhaaviaefolia 
Bursera graveolens 
Capparis mollis 
Ambrosia artemisioides 
Encelia canescens 
Pithecellobium excelsum 
Eriotheca discolor 
Maytenus octogona 

++te¢¢e¢ ++ 
++ ++ +++ 

++ +t ¢¢+4+ 4/4 




44 PH Y WOR OGLA January 1996 volume 8 1):40-47 

Tabla 1 (cont.). 

Tdxones_en_1 inventano. En Il: Proustia cuneifolia,; en lll: Hesperomeles 
pernettyoides, Cantua buxifolia; en 1V: Ophryosporus pinifolius, Jungia spectabilis, 
Mutisia acuminata, en_V: Ephedra americana, Croton ruizianus, Tarasa 
hornschuchiana, Abutilon reflexum, Lantana scabiosaeflora, Aloysia aloysioides, 
Lycium americanum; en_V1: Vallesia glabra, en V1l: Parkinsonia aculeata, en 1X: 
Geoffroea striata, Caesalpinia paipai, Coccoloba_ ruiziana, Aeschynomene 
tumbezensis, Cordia peruviana, Cryptocarpus pyriformis, Bougainvillea peruviana, 
Piptadenia flava, Ipomoea carnea. 

Localidades: I-Dep. Tacna, valle del rio Caplina; Il-Dep. Ica, Nazca; Ill-Dep. Ica, 

valle del rio Ingenio; IV-Dep. Ica, valle de Pisco; V-Dep. Lima, valle del Rimac; VI- 

Dep. Lambayeque, valle de Safia; VII-Dep. Piura, Piura; VIll-Dep. Piura, cerros de 
e; IX-Dep. Tumbes, Tumbes. 

+ Orden Oreocereo leucotrichi-Neoraimondietalia arequipensis ordo novo 
Typus: Corryocaction brevistyli allianza nova 

Es el orden de las comunidades de cardonales andinos neotropicales. 

Plantas caracteristicas: Armatocereus matycanensis, Carica candicans, 
Cnidoscolus basiacanthus, Jatropha macrantha, Melocactus peruvianus, Neoraimondia 
arequipensis, Oreocereus leucotrichus, y Orthopterygium huaucut. 

Las especies de cactéceas que proponemos como caracteristicas del orden son las 
que tienen una mayor distribucién en los Andes occidentales del Peni (Rauh, 1958; 
Ritter 1981; Zarucchi 1993). Oreocereus leucotrichus se encuentra en Bolivia, Chile, 
y Peri con una distribucién bastante amplia, al menos altitudinalmente (2000 a 4000 
m) [Ritter 1981; Hunt 1992]. También incluimos entre las caracteristicas a algunos 
Arboles y arbustos endémicos (McBnde 1937, 1941, 1951; Brako 1993). 

* Alianza Corryocaction brevistyli allianza nova 
Typus: Oreocereo tacnaensis-Corryocactetum brevistyli associatio nova 

Corryocactus brevistylus es una planta cuyo areal se extiende desde Arequipa 
(Peni) hasta Mamifia (Chile), y estd presente tanto en el piso de Browningia candelaris 
(2000-3000 m) como en el nivel altitudinal siguiente, hasta 3500 m. En este ultumo 
espacio convive con otras plantas propias de la puna seca peruano-chileno-boliviana, 
como Diplostephium meyenii o Parastrephia lepidophylla. La alianza Corryocaction 
brevistyli agrupa, por tanto también, a plantas caracteristicas que wenen una 
distribucién latitudinal semejante a Corryocactus brevistylus en el S del Peri y N de 

Galan de Mera & Vicente-Orellana: Comunidades con Corryocactus 45 

Chile (Hoffmann 1989): Ambrosia artemisioides, Browningia candelaris, Oreocereus 
hempelianus. Sin embargo, altitudinalmente, la dividimos por el momento en dos 
asociaciones: 1- Corryocacto aurei-Browningietum candelaris y 2- Oreocereo 
tacnaensis-Corryocactetum brevistyli. 

l- Corryocacto aurei-Browningietum candelaris associatio nova Typus: 
inventano 8, tabla 2. 

Comunidades muy dispersas de cactaceas (S-10% de cobertura) cuya especie 
directnz es Browningia candelaris. Se trata de una biocenosis que se asienta sobre las 
laderas de derrubios cuarciticos de los Andes occidentales, entre 2000 y 3000 m de 
altitud, y se extiende entre los departamentos de Arequipa y Tacna. 

Caracteristicas: Browningia candelaris, Corryocactus aureus, y Haageocereus 

2- Oreocereo tacnaensis-Corryocactetum brevistyli associatio nova Typus: 
inventano 9, tabla 2. 

. Al contrario que la asociacién antenor, se trata de una comunidad bastante mds 
densa (50-60% de cobertura) debido a la entrada de elementos de la puna seca, causada 
por un aumento de las precipitaciones, y a los sustratos mds compactos. 
Altitudinalmente tiene su 6ptimo entre 3000 y 3500 m. Hasta el momento, 
restringimos su areal a los Andes del departamento de Tacna en funcidn de la 
distnbucién de su especie diferencial, Oreocereus tacnaensis (Ritter 1981). 


Agradecemos a los profesores Dr. Oscar Tovar Serpa y Dr. Celso L. Mateus 
Pineda la revisi6n y comentanos del manuscrito. Muchas gracias a la Dra. Magda 
Chanco Estella que puso a nuestra disposici6n el matenal necesano del herbario USM. 


Bemardi, L. 1984. Contribuci6n a la dendrologia paraguaya, |. Boissiera 35:1-341. 

Brako, L. 1993. Euphorbiaceae. pp. 428-444 in L. Brako & J. Zarucchi, Caidlogo 
de las Angiospermas y Gimnospermas del Peru. Missouri Bot. Gard., St. Louis, 

Braun-Blanquet, J. 1964. Pflanzensoziologie Grundziige der Vegetationskunde. 
Springer-Verlag, Wien, Austna. 

Tabla 2.- Tabla fitosociolégica con inventanios levantados en el valle del rio Caplina 
(Dep. Tacna). 

46 PHY TOLOGGIA January 1996 volume 8(( 1):40-47 

N. de inventano 6 a 8 9 
200 1000 1000 200 
S E E S 
250 260 240 306 

Browningietum candelaris-AS 
Corryocactus aureus 
Haageocereus platinospinus 

Oreocereo tacnaensis- 

Corryocactetum brevistyli-AS 
Oreocereus tacnaensis 

Corryocaction brevistyli-AL 
Corryocactus brevistylus 
Ambrosia artemisioides 
Oreocereus hempelianus 
Browningia candelaris 

arequipensis-O, Opuntietea 

Opuntia sphaerica 
Oreocereus leucotrichus 


Atriplex atacamensis 

Spergularia congestifolia 

Quinchamalium procumbens 

Cristaria multifida 

Fagonia chilensis 

Euphorbia tacnaensis 2 
Villadia reniformis 2 2 


Compaieras en 1 6 2 inventarios. En 1: Lycium distichum +, Ligaria cuneifolia +, Oxalis bulbigera +, 
en 3: Pellaea ternifolia 1, Nolana confinis 1; en_7: Nolana confinis +; en 8:  Pellaea ternifolia 1, 
Notholaena nivea 1; en 9: Balbisia meyeniana 3, Parastrephia lepidophylla 1, Chersodoma arequipensis 1, || _ 
Spergularia collina 2, Diplostephium meyenii 2, Ephedra americana +, Proustia berberidifolia 1,\\ 
Gochnatia arequipensis 1;en 10: Balbisia meyeniana 2, Parastrephia lepidophylla 1, Spergularia collina \\_— 
1, Diplostephium meyenii 1, Gochnatia arequi j 

Galan de Mera & Vicente-Orellana: Comunidades con Corryocactus 47 

Britton, N.L. & J.N. Rose. 1963 (republication of the 2 ed., 1937). The Cactaceae. 
Dover Publications, New York, New York. 

Cardenas, M. 1945. Aspecto general de la vegetacion de Bolivia. pp. 312-313 in F. 
Verdoon, ed., Plants and Plant Science in Latin America. Waltham, 

Ferreyra, R. 1987. Flora y vegetacién del Peri. Manfer-J. Mejia Baca, eds., 
Barcelona, Spain. 

Galan de Mera, A., J.A. Vicente Orellana, J.A. Lucas Garcia, & A. Probanza Lobo. 
1995. Phytogeographical sectorization of the Peruvian coast. Manuscrito inédito. 

Hoffmann, A.E. 1989. Cactdceas en la Flora Silvestre de Chile. Fundaci6n Claudio 
Gay, Santiago de Chile. 

Hunt, D.R. 1992. CITES Cactaceae Checklist. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 

McBnide, J.F. 1937. Julianaceae. Flora of Peru. Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Bot. Ser. 

McBnde, J.F. 1941. Cancaceae. Flora of Peru. Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Bot. Ser. 
13(4/1): 132-143. 

McBnide, J.F. 1951. Euphorbiaceae. Flora of Peru. Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Bot. Ser. 

Moravec, J. 1992. Is the Ziirich-Montpellier approach still unknown in vegetation 
science of the English speaking countries? Journal of Vegetation Science 3:277- 


Miller, G.K. 1985. Zur floristichen Analyse der peruanischen Loma-Vegetation. 
Flora 176:153-165. 

Rauh, W. 1958. Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Peruanischen Kakteenvegetation. 
Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, Germany. 

Rauh, W. 1979. Peni. Pais de los contrastes. Boletin de Lima 1-2: 1-24. 

Ritter, F. 1981. Kakteen in Siidamerika. Peru. Band 4. F. Ritter, Selbsverlag. 

Solbnig, O. 1976. The origin and flonstic affinities of the South American temperate 
desert and semiarid regions. pp. 7-50 in D. Goodall, ed., Evolution of Desert 
Biota. University of Texas Press, Austin, Texas. 

Weberbauer, A. 1912. Pflanzengeographische Studien im siidlichen Peru. Bot. 
Jahrb., Beibl. 107:27-46. 

Weberbauer, A. 1945. El mundo vegetal de los Andes peruanos. Ministerio de 
Agricultura, Lima, Peri. 

Zarucchi, J.L. 1993. Cactaceae. pp. 265-309 in L. Brako & J. Zarucchi, Catdlogo de 
las Angiospermas y Gimnospermas del Perui. Missouri Bot. Gard., St. Louis, 

Phytologia (January 1996) 80(1):48-57 


Paul A. Volz! & Kira A. Babutina? 

Mycology Lab, Jefferson Building, Eastern Michigan University, Ypsilanti, Michigan 
48197 U.S.A. 

Naukova Dumka, Entuziastov Str., 253147 Kiev, THE UKRAINE? 


The Academies of Sciences of the new republics organized from the former 
Soviet Union (USSR) are reviewed for their current status and discipline 
interests. Some of the largest and oldest academic institutes in the world are 
found within the former USSR framework. These institutes include research 
laboratories, herbana, and agnicultural centers representing disciplines of the 
plant sciences. New institutes organized since the dissolution of the USSR are 
also included. Names of noted scientists are incorporated into the utles of 
some of these academic centers. All areas of science and engineering, 
including the botanical sciences, are briefly presented in this review of the 
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) Academies as they now exist. 

KEY WORDS: USSR-CIS Academies of Sciences, laboratones, institutes, 
research centers, academic disciplines of the Academies, the Ukraine Academy 

Since the recent formation of the independent republics, created out of the former 
Soviet Union, the Academies of Sciences facilities within each republic have conunued 
to function independently. Laboratones, institutes, and research centers produce 
research projects with quality data from in-depth studies. Many thousands of 
professional and highly trained individuals are employed in these facilities. The 
majority of their findings are presented as journal articles, reports, lectures, and 
symposia within their institutes. Good working relations exist between the Soviet 
Academies and European based science organizations, particularly in Finland, 
Germany, and England. Academies are now organized within separate republics, 
utilizing the previous Soviet Union administrative and scienufic personnel. Since the 
formation of the republics, the Academies have actually expanded their operations and 
academic disciplines. There is also a newly organized Russian Academy of Sciences 


Volz & Babutina: Reorganization of Soviet Academies of Science 49 

housed in new Moscow facilities intended for use by the entire former USSR 
Academies of Sciences (Figure 1). Individual Academies are examined according to 
their research specialties in the new republics with emphasis given to the detailed 
structure of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukraine. 

Pnor to the formation of the independent republics, the headquarters for all 
institutes, sections, and laboratories of the Academy of Sciences of the Soviet Union 
was Moscow. One Academy existed with many individual and corresponding 
members located throughout the previous Soviet Union. The central offices for the 
Soviet Union were housed in the former palace and support building used by 
Napoleon on his march through central Europe (Figure 2). A new Academy building 
was constructed in Moscow to house the central offices of the ever expanding 
institutes and research facilities of the Soviet Union (Figure 3). This building brings 
to the Moscow skyline an ultra modem multisection structure of an architectural design 
unique to Moscow (Figure 4). Completed just before the Soviet dissolution, the new 
building complex was constructed near the Yun Alekseyevich Gagarin Memonal and 
the Gagarin Plaza. With the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the new building now is 
headquarters for the reorganized Russian Academy of Sciences. Also included in the 
building are conference rooms, reception halls, and auditonums in addition to 
administrative office suites for science, cultural, and engineering disciplines. 

Now the republics have independent Academies of Sciences and corresponding 
administrative offices. The independent Academies of Sciences and capital cities 
include the Academies of Azerbaijan (Baku), Armenia (Yerevan), Belarus (Minsk), 
Estonia (Tallinn), Georgia (Tbilisi), Kazakhstan (Alma-Ata), Krgyzstan (Bishkek), 
Latvia (Riga), Lithuania (Vilnius), Moldova (Kishinyov), Russia (Moscow), 
Tajikistan (Dushanbe), Turkmenistan (Ashkhabad), Uzbekistan (Tashkent), and the 
Far East and Ural Scientific Center Section in addition to the Ukraine (Kiev). 

The Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan was founded in the capital city Baku in 
1945 on the basis of the Azerbaijan Branch of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. 
The Academy has 47 full members and 46 corresponding members that compnise the 
voting personnel found in five sections and 30 scientific establishments and facilities. 
Noted areas of specialization include mathematics, hydrodynamics, physics of semi- 
conductors, electrophysics, the chemistry of oil, geology, physiology, biochemistry, 
and other closely related fields, with the biological sciences receiving less attention. 

The Academy of Sciences of Armenia was founded in 1943 in Yerevan. 
Individual membership includes 40 members with SO corresponding members and 
three foreign members in six sections and 30 scientific establishments. Noted 
scientific disciplines include mathematics, cybernetics, astrophysics, mechanics of 
solid bodies, geology, seismology, the chemistry of natural and synthetic compounds, 
biochemistry, and archaeology. 

The Academy of Sciences of Belarus with headquarters in Minsk was organized in 
1928 on the basis of the Belarus culture. The organization was initiated with nine 
research insututes and three independent labs. After World War II (the Great Patnotic 
War), many scientific enterpnses were developed and incorporated into the Academy. 
There are approximately 53 members, 75 corresponding members in five branches and 
32 scientific establishments. Scientific disciplines of particular note include solid 
physics, high temperature optics physics, nuclear engineering, computer devices, 

50 evalu @ls OIG vA January 1996 volume 8(( 1):48-57 

cybernetics, radiobiology and photosynthesis, economics, philosophy, and 

The Academy of Sciences of Estonia was founded in 1946, after the Great 
Patriotic War. The Academy has 21 members, 24 corresponding members, and ten 
research establishments. The complex use of slate fuel is a major research discipline 
of study. 

In the city of Tbilisi, the Academy of Sciences of Georgia was founded in 1941. 
There are 63 academy members, 69 corresponding members in nine sections and 41 
scientific establishments. Over 1000 scientific topics and 234 science problems are 
under study. 

The city of Alma-Ata was the founding location for the Academy of Sciences of 
Kazakhstan in 1946. There are 53 members of the Academy, 85 corresponding 
members with five branches, 42 research establishments, and sixteen institutes. With 
a staff of over 1800 members, 48 hold Ph.D. degrees, 238 M.S. degrees, 200 
assistants, and over 200 are graduates of the institutes. 

In Bishkek the Academy of Sciences of Kyrgyzstan was organized in 1954. A 
total of 26 members and 32 corresponding members form the entire membership. 
Five sections and seventeen scientific establishments are found in the Kyrgyzstan 
Academy. Trends of study in the Academy include developmental geology, physics, 
and geochemistry of mountain rocks. 

The Academy of Sciences of Latvia was organized in Riga in 1946. The Latvia 
Academy has 25 academy members and 31 corresponding members. There are three 
sections and fifteen scientific establishments. The guidelines of the Academy examine 
the national economy and the culture of the republic. 

The Academy of Sciences of Lithuania was founded in Vilnius in 1941, and 
restored in 1946. The Academy now has 23 members and 25 corresponding members 
in three branches and twelve scientific establishments. Research trends include 
theories of probabilities, statistics, problems of cybernetics, theoretical spectroscopy 
of atoms and molecules, physics of semi-conductors, high temperature heat physics, 
metal coatings, and galvanic covers with previously set properties. Biological 
principles to increase plant growth along with economics are under study as are the 
disciplines of history, languages, and literature. 

The Academy of Sciences of Moldova was founded in 1961 in Kishinyov. The 
eighteen members and 26 corresponding members are found in three branches and 
seventeen scientific establishments. The pnmary research trends are directed to 
solving problems of agriculture to increase production. The history and culture of 
Moldova are also under study. 

The Academy of Sciences of Russia was reorganized in 1991. First founded in 
1917, then in 1925, the organization was expanded into the Academy of Sciences of 
the U.S.S.R. Before 1917, the group was known as the St. Petersburg Academy of 
Sciences which was initially founded in 1724. From 1934 to 1991 the Academy was 
housed in Moscow. There are approximately 269 members, 536 corresponding 
members, and 77 foreign members. 

Volz & Babutina: Reorganization of Soviet Academies of Science 51 

The U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences had several sections. These sections included 
mathematics, general physics and astronomy, nuclear physics, physico-mechanical 
problems of mechanical engineering, mechanics and process of management, general 
and technical chemistry, physicochemistry and technology of inorganic materials, 
biochemistry, biophysics, and chemistry of biologically active compounds, 
physiology, general biology, geology, geophysics and geochemistry, oceanology, 
physics of the atmosphere, geography, history, philosophy and law, economics, 
literature, and language. 

The Soviet complex included 250 scientific establishments, with about 42,000 
science workers, 200 scientific councils, and a research fleet. It coordinated the 
activities of the Academy of Sciences of the Union Republics. The complex trained 
the research staff. Included were 16,500 postgraduates located throughout the Union 
Republics. Under the Union Republics, organized through Moscow, the Union 
Academies awarded medals and prizes for science works. Also coordinated through 
Moscow were a number of Science Societies within the Academy of Sciences of the 
former U.S.S.R. The Soviet Academy also handled scientific relations with 250 
international organizations located in many countries. 

The Academy of Sciences of Tajikistan was organized in 1951 in Dushanbe. The 
disciplines and sections of the Academy include mathematics, seismology, 
astrophysics, nuclear physics, chemical technology, biology as well as history and 
literature. The number of members in Tajikistan is not known. 

The Academy of Sciences of Turkmenistan was organized in 1951 in Ashkhabad. 
Research specialties include molecular acoustics, spectroscopy, applied geophysics, 
petroleum chemistry, desert farming, cotton productivity, biochemistry of viruses as 
well as history of the area, languages, and literature. The number of members in 
Turkmenistan is not known. 

The Academy of Sciences of Uzbekistan was founded in 1932 in Tashkent on the 
basis of a republic committee guided by the Soviet science establishments. Regular 
meetings and the Academy structure were developed by 1940. The number of 
members in Uzbekistan is not known. In addition, the Sibenan section and the Far 
East and Ural Scientific Center contain eleven branches, including five in Sibena. 

The Academy of Sciences of the Ukraine was founded in 1918 by a group in Kiev 
headed by Academician Vernadsky who served as the first president. Succeeding 
presidents included Acad. Vasilenko (1921-22), Acad. Levitsky (1922), Acad. Lipsky 
(1922-28), Acad. Zabolotny (1928-29), and Acad. Bogomoletz (1930-46). From 
1946 to 1991 the Academy directorate was through offices in Moscow. Currently the 
Ukraine Academy has 83 Academy buildings or complexes, 87 organizations and 
departments, with 89,000 people working within the structure of the Academy. A 
total of 2096 people have eared their Ph.D. degrees, 10,336 have M.S. degrees, 
10,003 people are professor - candidates of science, and 194 are academicians and 
269 corresponding members of the Academy of Sciences. Of the 2096 Ph.D.’s 2050 
work within the science establishments. Currently 54 foreign member belong to the 
Ukraine Academy. 

52 PHY TOLEOGIA January 1996 volume 8 1):48-57 

The general management of the Ukraine Academy is structured for an office of the 
president, with a vice president, general science secretary, and assistant science 
secretary reporting to the president. The vice president’s immediate staff includes a 
group manager, a special task group, a group for equipment computation and science 
instruments, and a group for plans, operations, and economics. In addition, special 
departments are designed to report directly to the president and vice president. The 
special departments include the Dept. of Science Organization, Dept. of Building, 
Dept. of International Regulations, and the Dept. of Applied Programs. 

Major sections in the Ukraine Academy serve as the disciplinary areas of 
investigation and research. The areas of study evolved to fit the needs of the people 
and geographic location of the Ukraine. The research centers of the National Academy 
include the Innovation Center, Donetsk Research Center, West Research Center, 
South Research Center, North-Eastern Research Center, and the Research Center of 
the Dnieper Area. In comparing section topics between republics of the former Soviet 
Union, similarities are found when the Union was directed previously from Moscow. 
Additional disciplines identify the needs and requirements of a particular geographic 
location and more recently the requirements and ethnic background of a particular 
group of people. Frequently these divisions are also separated by a particular 
language and cultural heritage. The Academy of Sciences of the Ukraine strongly 
reflects these regional and ethnic charactenstics and requirements. 

The central departments of the Ukraine Presidium include Metrology, 
Standardization, and Quality Production Control, with an Experimental Plant of the 
Institute of Superhard Matenals. The Center of Research and Teaching Foreign 
Languages is becoming more widely used with the creation of the CIS. Departments 
include Material and Technical Supply, and Scientific Equipment. The extensive 
Natural Science Museum houses Archaeology, Geology, Paleontology, Zoology, and 
Botany Museums and herbaria. The Science Exposition Center, Science Exhibition 
Center, and Intertrade Firm help promote science information as does the Laboratory 
of Scientific Cinema - Photoinformation, House of Scientists, the Association of 
Young Scientists and Specialists, and individuals in their respective disciplines. 

Interdepartmental Research Councils in the Ukraine focus attention on 
Socioeconomic Prognostication, Economics, Increase of Safety and Longevity of 
Machines and Structures, Corrosion and Anticorrosive Protection of Metals, and 
Problems of National Relations. Other Councils focus on Automation of Expenmental 
Studies, Experimental Instrument Making, Problems of Biosphere, Philosophical and 
Social Problems of Science and Engineering, Problems of Biotechnology, and the 
Automated Systems of Data and Computer Networks, Science Publications, Museum, 
Information - Library, and the Council on Mechanics and Technology of Explosion. 
Committees are organized for Slavonic Scholars, Studies and Expansion of Slavonic 
Cultures, the Program of UNESCO’s Man and Biosphere, New and Regenerated 
Sources of Energy and Its Conservation, Chemical Problems, Scientific Terminology, 
Informatics, System Analysis, and the Committee of Science and Culture Relations 
with Ukrainians Abroad. Commissions include Space Research, Transport 
Development, World Oceans, Relations with the International Agency on Atomic 
Energy, Program on Goods and Services, Agncultural Sciences, Computer 
Engineering, Distnbution and Use of Scientific Services and _ Installations, 

Volz & Babutina: Reorganization of Soviet Academies of Science Se) 

rip, i: Main entrance to the new Academy of Sciences of Russia in Moscow. 

aCe 2 Headquarters of the former Soviet Academy of Sciences, Moscow 

54 PHY TOE OGIA January 1996 volume 8(( 1):48-57 


Complex of offices, lecture rooms and conference facilities at the 
of Sciences, Moscow. 

Russian Academy 

\rt sculpture located on high rise office complex of the Russian Academy ° +! 

Sciences, \loscow, 

Volz & Babutina: Reorganization of Soviet Academies of Science 55 

Acquirement of Archive Matenals, Works of Art and Rare Publications, Youth 
Relations, Military Sponsorship, Science Historians, Awards for the Use of 
Inventions, and the Commission on Development of Scientific Inheritance. 

In addition to the Presidium organization, two major sections compose the 
National Academy of Sciences of the Ukraine. Centers, Institutes, Bureaus, and 
Associations are established in Section I, the Mathematics section of the Academy. 
Institute disciplines include Applied Problems of Mathematics and Mechanics, Low 
Temperatures, while Mathematical Societies exist in Kharkiv, Kiev, Lviv, and 
Donetsk. A total of eleven sections are found in Section I. Internationally recognized 
people honored with their names incorporated into the Institute names in Section | 
include Ya. S. Pidstrygach (Applied Math. and Mechanics), and B.I. Verkin (Low 

Section II includes Science Information, Computer Engineering, and Automation. 
Twelve establishments in Section II include Cybernetics, Timer Computers, 
Aerospace Information of Ecological Monitoring, Automated Biotechnical Systems, 
Problems of Calculating Machines and Systems, Program Systems, Problems of 
Record Information, Science and Technology Potential, Applied Information, 
Technology of Programming, Problems of Artificial Intelligence, Automation, 
Experimental Production Amalgamation, Informatics and Control, and Problems of 
Cybernetics. Institutes so honored by names of scientists include V.M. Glushkov 
(Cybernetics) and G.M. Dobrov (History of Science). 

Mechanics Institutes are found in Section III of the Academy complex. The 
Institutes include Design Technology, Technical Mechanics, Problems of Strength, 
Geotechnical Mechanics, Physicotechnical Problems of Transport on Superconducting 
Magnets, Hydromechanics, and Deformed Solid Body Mechanics. 

Twenty three Institutes, Pilot Plants or Research Centers are within Section IV 
Physics and Astronomy. Major facilities include Nuclear Physics, Semiconductors, 
Metal Physics, Theoretical Physics, Low Temperature Physics, Radiophysics and 
Electronics, Radioastronomy, the Ionosphere, Condensed Systems, Applied Physics, 
Electron Physics, Electrophysical Treatment, Solid Body Physics, Quantum 
Electronics, Astronomy, Plasma Electronics, and Acceleration of Charged Particles. 

Eight Institutes and Pilot Plants are housed in Section V Earth Sciences. They 
include Geological Sciences, Marine Geology, Geophysics, Geodynamics of 
Explosion, Geography, Geochemistry, Mineralogy and Ore Formation, Fossil Fuels, 
Nature Conservancy, Marine Hydrophysics, and Natural Shelf Resources. Councils 
and Committees are on Geophysics, Meteorites, Lithology, Mineralogy, 
Paleontology, Hydrogeology, Natural Resources - Remote Sensing, Mineral 
Resources, Tectonics, Fossil Fuels, and Earthquakes. An Institute is named in honor 
of S.E. Subbotin (Geophysics). 

Physical and Technical Problems of Materials Sciences compose the Institutes of 
Section VI. The Institutes and Pilot Plants include Electrical Welding, Metal 
Treatment, Welding Materials, Electrometallurgy, Material Science Problems, Basalt 
Fibers, Materials Science Steels, Materials Science Problems, Casting Problems, 
Corrosion Mechanics, Superhard Materials, Pulse Processes and Technologies, Single 
Crystals, Thermoelectrics, and Ferrous Metallurgy. The Councils focus attenton on 

S56 PHYTOLOGIA January 1996 volume 80(1):48-57 

Problems of Superficial Phenomena in Melts and Solid Phases, Physical and Chemical 
Mechanics of Materials, and Problems in High Pressures in Materials Science. 
Institutes to honor scientists in Section VI include E.O. Paton (Electncal Welding), 
I.M. Frantsevich (Materials Science), G.V. Karpenko (Physical and Mechanical 
Science), V.M. Bakul (Super Hard Materials), and Z.I. Nekrasov (Ferrous 

Section VII of the Academy contains Institutes and Pilot Plants in Physical and 
Technical Problems of Power Engineering. Disciplines of Institutes, Pilot Plants, 
Bureaus, and Councils include Thermal Physics, Mechanical Engineering, 
Electrodynamics, Simulation Problems in Power Engineering, Energy Conservation, 
High Temperature Transformation, Gas, Steam Engines, Low Grade Fuels, and 
Mining Thermal Physics. 

Section VIII Institutes, Pilot Plants, and Councils of the Academy involve 
disciplines of Chemistry. The designated areas of chemistry are Physical Chemistry, 
Technology of Fossil Fuels, Organic Chemistry, High Molecular Weight Compounds, 
Carbon Chemistry, Colloid Chemistry and Chemistry of Water, Surface Chemistry, 
Bio-organic Chemistry, and Petroleum Chemistry, Sorption and Problems of 
Endoecology, Drugs and the Ministry of Health, and Biocolloid Chemistry. Scientific 
Councils are organized to examine the Problems in Chemical Kinetics and Structure, 
Electrochemical Kinetics and Electrode Processes, Synthesis and Ultrapunfication of 
Inorganic Compounds, Modification of Polymers, Technology of Surface 
Modification, Biopolymers and Bioregulators, and Petroleum Chemistry and 
Refining. Institutes in Section VIII bearing names of noted chemists include L.V. 
Pisarzhevsky (Physical Chemistry), O.V. Bogatsky (Physical Chemistry), L.M. 
Litvinenko (Organic Chemistry), and A.V. Dumansky (Colloid Chemistry). 

Section IX Biochemistry, Physiology, and Molecular Biology contains institutes 
in these three disciplines in addition to Microbiology and Virology, and Cryobiology 
and Cryomedicine along with five Scientific Councils in Problems in these study 
areas. Institutes named for noted scientists include O.V. Paladin (Biochemistry), 
0.0. Bogomolets (Physiology), D.K. Zabolotny (Microbiology and Virology), and 
I.P. Pavlov (Physiology). 

Section X Problems in Medicine is organized into Institutes, Bureaus, Hospitals, 
and facilities for making instruments and equipment. Institutes include Experimental 
Pathology, Oncology and Radiobiology, Labor Medicine, Neurosurgery, Urology and 
Nephrology, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Radiation Medicine, Epidemiology and 
Radiation Damages Treatment, and Food Chemistry and Technology. Two Councils 
examine Problems in Malignant Tumors and Deterioration. A scientist professionally 
recognized in Section X with an Institute name is R.E. Kavetsky (Pathology, 
Oncology, and Radiobiology). 

The vast Section XI on General Biology houses Institutes, Botanical Gardens, 
Natural Reserves, Museums, and Societies that define the different regions and 
various habitats of the land. Institutes include Botany, Carpathian Ecology, Zoology, 
Hydrobiology, Plant Physiology and Genetics, and Biology of the Southern Seas. 
Natural Reserves, Museums, and Science Societies are found throughout the country, 
specializing in many disciplines. Science Councils focus on Problems in Ecological 
Prognostication under conditions of Intensive Conservancy, and Animal 

Volz & Babutina: Reorganization of Soviet Academies of Science 57 

Conservancy. Scientists elevated to Institute Recognition in Section XI include M.G. 
Kholodny (Botany), M.M. Gryshko (Botany), I.1. Schmalhausen (Zoology), and 
O.O. Kovalevsky (Tropical Biology). 

Section XII Economics includes institutes in Economics, Problems of Markets and 
Economicoecological Research, Industnal Economics, Economicolegislative 
Research, Economics and International Relations, and Economical Programs. 
Councils exist to Investigate Production, Population Employment of Job Markets, 
Problems of Economic Relations and Improvement of Economic Mechanism, and 
Improvement of Planning and Social Production Control. 

Section XIII includes History, Philosophy, and Law. Institutes of the Section 
include Ukraine History, Archaeology, Ukraine Science, Science of the East, National 
Relations and Political Science, Philosophy, Sociology, and the State and Law. 
Various Centers, Museums, Libraries, and Associations are found throughout the 
country. Councils focus attention on Problems in History of Science, Sociology, 
Coordination of Legislative Research, and Archaeology and Ancient History. 

Section XIV concerns Literature, Language, and Art. Institutes include Literature 
of the Ukraine, Linguistics, Ukrainian Language, Art Study, Folklore and 
Ethnography, and Peoples Science. Councils study Scientific Terminology, Classical 
Inheritance and Fiction of the Present, Regulanities in Development of Languages and 
Practice of Linguistic Activity, Artistic and Traditional Everyday Culture, the School 
of Ukrainistics, and the Ukrainian Onomastic Commission. Institutes with names of 
prominent individuals include T.H. Shevchenko (Literature), O.O. Potebnya 
(Linguistics), and M.T. Rylsky (Art). 

Internationally recognized scholars are honorea by having their names attached to 
the various Institutes. A time of transition is now underway with all Institutes under 
the former direction of central Academy control in Moscow. Now the Academy in 
Moscow is the directive for Russia, and Commonwealth States have independent 
jurisdiction for each new commonwealth republic. New associations replace the 
Soviet system, but as one nation dissolved into many, the entire fabric of the new 
republics must be built that incorporates the traditions, customs, and languages of the 
regions of the former U.S.S.R. International trade is suddenly cnppled, and new 
economies and associations must be fostered. Central government funding, salaries, 
equipment, and supplies now are shifted to the private sector, international 
foundations, and associations. During this transition, the Institutes with their staff 
members remain available to supervise and guide the transition to individual 
Commonwealth States, a stabilizing factor for nationality expression. Every 
procedure, new invention, method, and association is now a new experience in an 
entirely new set of values and in an entirely new way of life which has no 
infrastructure to replace the old Soviet system. 

Phytologia (January 1996) 80(1):58-61. 


George S. Hinton 

Apartado Postal 603, Saltillo, Coahuila, MEXICO 25000 


A new species of Mammillaria, M. luethyi G.S. Hinton is described 
from northern Coahuila, México, where it occurs in shallow soil deposits on 
horizontal limestone slabs. It is outstanding for its unique spine characters. 

KEY WORDS: Cactaceae, Mammillaria, México, Coahuila, systematics 

With the following description we put an end to a 44 year old mystery. Onginally 
the plant herein described was found in 1952 by Boke as a cultivated specimen of 
unknown origin. Photographs made by Cutak were published by Backeberg (1961) 
who wrongly identified it as an undescnbed species of Neogomesia. Glass & Foster 
(1978) showed the same plant, identifying it correctly as a species of Mammillaria. 
Bravo & Sanchez-Mejorada (1991, figure 242) published the same photo as 
Normanbokea valdeziana. 

Northern Coahuila: On limestone slabs in Chihuahuan Desert vegetation, May 19 
1996, Hinton et al. 25771 (HOLOTYPE: HERBARIUM OF G.B. HINTON; 
Isotypes: to be distnbuted). 

Plantulae perpusillae, spinis albis dense vestitis, vix e terra emergentes, 
simplices vel modice prolificantes, apice 1.5 cm diametro, radicibus 
succulentis e base caulis, tuberculis peranguste cylindricis, erectis, ca. 5.5 mm 
longis, 1.3 mm diametro, areolis 80 spinis albis, dense insertis, 0.4-0.6 mm 
longis, extremo solo pubescentibus papillis radiantibus quasi stellula, apicem 
tuberculi tegentibus. Flos 2 cm longus et diametro, submagenteus. Fructus 
globosus, ca. 4.5 mm diametro, vix carnosus, immersus in caule, luteolus ad 
modice rubescens. Semen niger, globosus, 1 mm diametro, hilo basali, testa 

Hinton: New Mammillaria from Coahuila 

Figure 1. Photograph of habit and habitat of Marmmnillaria luethyi. 

60 PHMFOLOGIA January 1996 volume 80{ 1):58-61 

Stems single to branching with up to 7 heads, apex rounded to flattened, ca. 1.5 
cm in diameter, emerging only slightly above the substrate. Subterranean part of the 
stem naked, carrot-like, conical with several strongly succulent, tapering roots, ca. 6 
mm in diameter at base. Tubercles ascending, densely set, very slender, cylindncal, 
up to 5.5 mm long and 1.3 mm in diameter, dark green with a reddish or whitish base, 
becoming dry and deciduous in the subterranean part of the stem. Areoles containing 
some hyaline hairs and up to 80 white spines, densely set in vanous series, porrect to 
radiating, forming a dense flattened cluster 1.3-1.8 mm in diameter, slightly 
rhomboidal in outline, completely covering the apex of the tubercle. Spines 0.4-0.6 
mm long, the uppermost in the areoles slightly longer, whitish-translucent with hyaline 
hairs in the uppermost part, hairs radiating and forming a little umbrella at the spine 
apex. Flowers up to 2 cm long and wide, light magenta. Fruit nearly completely 
sunken in the stem, globular, 4.5 mm in diameter, yellowish green to reddish green 
with up to 15 seeds, drying and leaving a cavity filled with seeds in the stem base. 
Seeds black, globular, ca. 1 mm long and wide, with a basal hilum, slightly separated 
by a faint neck, irregularly oval, 0.8 mm long and 0.4 mm wide. Testa finely pitted. 

The plants grow on horizontal limestone slabs, deeply sunken in a very shallow 
substrate (Figure 1), only 1.5-2.0 cm deep, of sandy clay and fine gravel, growing 
with Selaginella wrightii, Neolloydia conoidea, Bouteloua gracilis, and lichen. The 
microhabitats are surrounded by typical Chihuahuan Desert vegetation, dominated by 
Agave lechuguilla, Dasylirion sp., Yucca elata, Yucca sp., Fouquieria splendens, 
Escobaria tuberculosa, and Glandulicactus uncinatus. 

Mamamillaria luethyi is known only from the type locality, which has been 
purposefully withheld to protect the habitat from collecting. The exact locality data are 
deposited with the holotype. 

Mammillaria luethyi belongs to the senes Herrerae, together with M. humboltii, M. 
herrerae, M. albiflora, and M. sanchez-mejoradae, this last being its closest neighbor, 
growing to the southeast in Nuevo Leén. The species of series Herrerae share several 
characters, e.g., fruits sunken in the stem, a high number of white radial spines, lack 
of central spines and the distnbution as narrow endemics on limestone rock in eastern 
México from Querétaro to Coahuila (Liithy 1995). Mammillaria luethyi differs from 
M. sanchez-mejoradae in the arrangement and vestture of the spines (vs. pectinate, 
plumose) and the color of the flower (vs. white). Superficially it resembles M. 
saboae, of senes Longiflorae, from which it differs in the habitat (vs. volcanic rock), 
spine insertion, count, length, and vestiture (vs. a single series, 17-25, ca. 2 mm long, 
glabrous) and flower size (vs. 4 cm long and wide). 

This remarkable Mammillaria is named for Jonas M. Lithy, one of its co- 
discoverers, a Swiss botanist and student of the genus Mammillaria, who after a flash 
of intuition pointed to its exact location on his map and spoke, “This is where the plant 
grows.” And there we found tt. 

Hinton: New Mammillaria from Coahuila 6] 


I wish to thank my wife Alejandra for her support on all my collecting tps. 

I am grateful to B.L. Turner and Gayle Turner for reviewing the manuscnpt. Also 
Alejandra Hinton for the use of her vehicle. 


Backeberg, C. 1961. Die Cactaceae. Vol. 5: 2687. 

Bravo, Hollis H. & Sanchez Mejorada H. 1991. Las Cactdceas de México. Vol. 3. 
Universidad Nacional Autonoma de México: Fig. 242. 

Glass, C. & R. Foster. 1978. What is New. Cact. Succ. J. (U.S.A.):60. 

Luthy, J. 1995. Taxonomische Untersuchung der Gattung Mammillaria Haw. 
(Cactaceae). Verlag Arbeitskreis fur Mammillanenfreunde AfM) e.V. & Jonas M. 

Phytologia (January 1996) 80(1):62-66 


George S. Hinton 

Apartado Postal 603, Saltillo, Coahuila, MEXICO 25000 


A new species of Turbinicarpus, T. booleanus G.S. Hinton, 1s 
described from Nuevo Leén, México, where it occurs on gypsum outcrops. A 
map showing the distribution of the new species and the other tuberous-rooted 
taxa of Turbinicarpus, T. mandragora, and T. subterraneus var. subterraneus, 
is also provided. 

KEY WORDS: Cactaceae, Turbinicarpus, México, Nuevo Leon, gypsum, 

Some species of Turbinicarpus (Backeb.) Buxb. & Backeb. occur consistently 
throughout the gypsum outcrops in Nuevo Leon, México. The gypsophilic species are 
usually like those that were once included in the genus Gymnocactus Backeb.. a 
remarkable exception being the recently descnbed 7. hoferi J. Luthy & A.B. Lau from 
the gypsum to the north of Arambern, Nuevo Leon. Like other genera with 
gypsophilic members in this area, notably Leucophyllum, Verbesina, Sedum, 
Aztekium, Geohintonia, Jaimehintonia, and Sophora, Turbinicarpus contains narrowly 
endemic taxa which are often restncted to a single gypsum outcrop. The present 
novelty occurs in the Municipio of Galeana, in two localities separated a few 
kilometers from each other. 

Nuevo Leén: Mpio. Galeana, Y Gnega, 1860 m, gypsum hillside, 1 Mar 1992, 
Hinton et al. 21805 (HOLOTYPE: TEX; Isotypes: CANTE,ENCB, G.B. Hinton 

Turbinicarpus mandragora (A. Berger) A.D. Zimmermann et TI. 
subterraneus (Backeb.) A.D. Zimmermann var. sublerraneus simile quoad 
radix tuberascens per collum gracilem ad caule connexa; caulibus singulis 
partim hypogaeis depressi-obovatis; collo hypogaeo plerumque 2-5 cm longo; 
in quoque areola spinis centralis duabus, supenore antrorsa infenore porrecta, 


Hinton: New Turbinicarpus from Nuevo Leon 63 

ad basim albis cetero atrobrunneis vel nigris; spinis radialis vulgo 18-20 
ubique albis vel apicem versus rubns vel brunneis; flombus magenteis; 
fructibus longitudinaliter dehiscentibus pulverulentis, squamis duabus 
stramineis ca. 1 mm longis. 

Stems single, rarely branching, broadly obovate, 2.5-4.5 cm high, 2.5-5.5 cm in 
diameter, basally truncate in older specimens. Roots connected to the stem by a 
narrow, hypogeous neck; neck 1-5 cm long, 3-5 mm in diameter, usually straight but 
occasionally curved or angled. Roots tuberous, pynform to globose, 0.8-2.8 cm in 
diameter, 1.2-5.7 cm long. Stems tuberculate, the axils naked; tubercles rhomboidal 
in cross section, lacking a dorsal sulcus, green, white-dotted, ca. 4 mm high, ca. 5 
mm wide at the base, arranged in 13 and 21 spirals. Areoles elliptical 1.5-2.0 mm 
long, 1 mm wide, villous near apex, later glabrous, ca. 8 mm apart. Central spines 2, 
ca. 0.3 mm in diameter at the base, terete, proximally white, turning brown, then black 
above, the apical antrorse, mostly 12-15 mm long, ranging from 10 to 24 mm, the 
basal porrect, mostly 12-18 mm long, ranging from 10 to 21 mm. Radial spines 
mostly 18 to 20, rarely as few as 14 or as many as 28, acicular, white, the extreme 
apex usually brown or reddish; the lowermost (retrorse) radial spines shortest, these 
ca. 3-6 mm long and 0.1 mm in diameter at the base, progressively longer above, the 
uppermost (antrorse) radial spines longest, usually ca. 17 mm, rarely to ca. 29 mm 
long, 0.2 mm in diameter at the base. Flowers ca. 2 cm in diameter, ca. 2.5 cm high. 
Outer perianth segments oblong, entire, mucronulate, the lowermost ca. 8 mm long 
and 3 mm wide, with a white, translucent margin, midvein green, becoming dark 
purple above. Inner perianth segments narrowly oblanceolate, apex emarginate and 
often mucronulate, ca. 15 mm long and 4 mm wide, pale to dark magenta with darker 
midvein. Anthers yellow; filaments yellow. Style ca. 11 mm long; stigma lobes 7 to 
9, pale yellow, protruding ca. 5 mm above the anthers. Fruit dark green to purple, 
pulverulent, longitudinally dehiscent, ca. 6 mm in diameter and 7 mm high, attached at 
the base of an apical areole, with two stramineous scales ca. 1 mm long. 

In the treatments of both Anderson (1986) and Bravo et al. (1991), Turbinicarpus 
booleanus will key to T. mandragora (A. Berger) A.D. Zimmermann and T. 
subterraneus (Backeb.) A.D. Zimmermann var. sublerraneus because of their tuberous 
roots connected to the stem by an elongate neck. These three taxa are widely separated 
geographically (Map 1). Turbinicarpus booleanus is unique among them in having 
only about a third of the main stem body above ground; this correlates with the porrect 
central spines which are directed vertically. In the length of its neck, 7. booleanus is 
more similar to T. mandragora, but the latter has a more or less globose, epigeous 
body; brown-tipped (vs. mostly black) central spines that spread perpendicularly away 
from the body; fewer radial spines per areole (8 to 14 vs. 14 to 28); and white (vs. 
magenta) flowers. This species is known only from its type locality, near Parras, in 
southern Coahuila) Though closer geographically to 7. subterraneus var. 
subterraneus, T. booleanus is easily distinguished from this taxon by its shorter, 
thicker, hypogeous neck with partially hypogeous body; and more and longer radial 
spines that are brown at the apex (vs. glassy-white throughout). Turbinicarpus 
subterraneus var. subterraneus grows about 75 km to the south of 7. booleanus on 
low shrubby limestone hills with Agave, Dasylirion, Flourensia, Larrea, Mortonia, 
and Yucca, the plants incredibly suspended on their long necks. Turbinicarpus 
booleanus is found infrequently only on bare, exposed gypsum slopes with Dasylirion 
berlandieri, Muhlenbergia gypsophila, Pinus greggii, Selaginella gypsophila, and 
Yucca decipiens. 

volume &({ 1):62-66 

January 1996 


104 103 
ee ae ee 

iB boo] eanum 

AT. mandragora 

e subterraneus vat subterraneus 
0 31 62 93 124 155 Km 
———— oe 




©OCiudad Victoria 

4 Gulf of 




rpus booleanus, T. subterraneus var. 

Map of the distnbutions of Turbinica 

subterraneus, and T. mandragora. 

Figure 1: 

Hinton: New Turbinicarpus trom Nuevo Leén 

Figure 2: Photograph of the holotype of Turbinicarpus booleanus. 

66 PHY TOLOGIA January 1996 volume 80x 1):62-66 

It is a pleasure to name this novelty for my son George Boole, who, though only 
five years old, accompanies me regularly on my field tnps throughout Nuevo Leon 
and Coahuila. 


I thank Dr. B.L. Turner, Mark Mayfield, and Carol Todzia for reviewing the 
manuscript, and Paul Fryxell for the Latin diagnosis. 


Anderson, EF. 1986. A Revision of the genus Neolloydia B. & R. (Cactaceae). 
Bradleya 4: 1-28. 

Bravo, Hollis Helia & Hernando Sanchez Mejorada. 1991. Las Cactaceas de México. 
Vol. II. Universidad Nacional Aut6noma de México, Ciudad México, México. 
Glass C. & R. Foster. 1978. Two new Vaneties of Gymnocactus from Northern 

Mexico. Cact. Succ. J. (U.S.A.) 50:281-285. 

Phytologia (January 1996) 80(1):67 


Inventory of Rare and Endangered Vascular Plants of California, Fifth Edition. Mark 
W. Skinner & Bruce M. Pavlik (eds.). Illustrations by Linda Ann Vorobik and 
Mark W. Skinner. California Native Plant Society, Special Publication No. 1. 
California Native Plant Society, 1722 J Street, Suite 17, Sacramento, California 
95814. 1994. vi. 338 pp. $22.95 ISBN 0-943460-18-2 (paper); $150.00 
ISBN 0-943460-19-0 (electronic). 

More than simply a listing of rare plants, this book begins with an 
introduction to California floristics, with background on endemism and other 
factors contributing to ranty in the California flora. Additional background 
information includes summary of efforts to preserve the flora, discussion of 
policy issues, and descriptions of agency responsibilities. The listing itself 
includes scientific and common names, ranty codes, locations, habitat, life 
form, flowering period, and notes. Notes include additional information about 
the plant and references for more information. In addition to the officially rare 
and endangered plants, many other species are included that had been 
considered for listing, but were not listed. In each of these cases, the reason 
for not listing them is mentioned. 


Phytologia (January 1996) 80(1):68. 




Cover date 

July 1995 
August 1995 
September 1995 
October 1995 
November 1995 
December 1995 

Publication date 

31 January 1996 
29 Apnil 1996 
10 June 1996 
10 July 1996 
31 July 1996 
23 August 1996 

Phytologia (January 1996) 80(1):69. 


Manuscripts listed below include those received after examination by two or more 
reviewers. A note of appreciation to reviewers is found on page 511 of volume 78 
and page 70 of volume 80, with the lists of reviewers. Manuscripts received without 
review are not considered for publication until review has been completed. 
Manuscripts received: 137 
Manuscripts accepted without revision: 58 
Manuscripts accepted after revision: 64 
Manuscripts returned to authors without publication: 7 
Manuscripts currently under revision: 8 
Manuscnpts currently accepted but not yet published: 17 
Papers published: 105 

Days elapsed from receipt of manuscript to publication (includes only those 
manuscripts selected for publication): mean = 58; range =15-131 

Days elapsed from acceptance for publication to publication of manuscnpt: mean = 
49; range = 15-64 


Phytologia (January 1996) 80(1):70. 


The editor expresses his most sincere appreciation to the following individuals. 
These are persons who have reviewed papers that were submitted for publication in 
volume 79 of Phytologia. Without the willingness and diligence of these reviewers, 
the task of the editor would be much more difficult, and the quality of the papers 
published would be lessened. To each of you, I offer my most sincere thanks. 

Allred, K. 
Barneby, R. 
Barringer, K.A. 
Carlquist, S. 
Croat, T.B. 
Delevoryas, T. 
Delprete, P. 
Dutton, B.E. 
Evans, J. 
Halward, T.M. 
Jensen, R. 
Jones, S. 
Laven, R.D. 
Lellinger, D. 
MacRoberts, D.T. 
McDonald, A. 
McPherson, G. 
Mayfield, M. 
Nesom, G.L. 
Nicolson, D. 
Panero, J. 

Michael J. Warnock, Editor 

Powell, A.M. 
Reveal, J.L. 
Rundell, J.R. 
Schatz, G.E. 
Spellenberg, R. 
Turner, B.L. 
Turner, G. 
Weber, B. 
Wendt, T. 
Wilken, D. 
Williams, J. 

Phytologia (January 1996) 80(1):71. 


Axelius, B. 10 133, 257, 286, 289, 293, 296, 
Ghemiick J. 51 298, 301, 303, 306, 309, 313, 

ea: 317, 340, 343, 356, 364, 369 
Close, B.F. 372 

Wang, Wen Tsai 382 

Engel, J.J. 250 

Grant, J.R. 254 Warnock, M.J. 136, 382 

Grayum, M.H. 108, 269 Weber, W.A. 65 
Yahara, T. 35 

Gregory, T.J. 51 
Hammel, B.E. 269 Zu Sanaa ee 
Hempel, A.L. 298 

Hemera A. ¥. 25, 325 

Hunt, D.M. 22 

Keller, C. 319 

Knobloch, I.W. 346 

Lowrey, T. 319 - 

Luhrs, H. 114, 389 

MacRoberts, B.R. 22, 123 

MacRoberts, M.H. 22, 123 

Morden, C.W. 28 

Nesom, G.L. 257, 281 

Reveal, J.L. 68 

Schnell, L. 372 

Shaw, R.B. 372 

Sivinski, R. 319 

Smith Mermill, G.L. 250 

Soejima, A. 35 

Sperling, C.R. 1 

Turner, B.L. 5, 8, 12, 31, 38, 43, 47, 
58, 77, 80, 83, 89, 93, 97, 102, 





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